Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Japanese Gardens Japanese Gardens The role of gardens play a much more important role in Japan than here in the United States. This is due primarily to the fact the Japanese garden embodies native values, cultural beliefs and religious principles. Perhaps this is why there is no one prototype for the Japanese garden, just as there is no one native philosophy or aesthetic. In this way, similar to other forms of Japanese art, landscape design is constantly evolving due to exposure to outside influences, mainly Chinese, that effect not only changing aesthetic tastes but also the values of patrons. In observing a Japanese garden, it is important to remember that the line between the garden and the landscape that surrounds it is not separate. Instead, the two are forever merged, serving as the total embodiment of the one another. Every aspect of the landscape is in itself a garden. Also when observing the garden, the visitor is not supposed to distinguish the garden from its architecture. Gardens in Japan incorporate both natural and artificial elements, therefor uniting nature and architecture into one entity. Japanese gardens also express the ultimate connection between humankind and nature, for these gardens are not only decorative, but are a clear expression of Japanese culture. Although this extremely close connection of the individual with nature, the basic principle of Japanese gardens, has remained the constant throughout its history, the ways in which this principle has come to be expressed has undergone many great changes. Perhaps the most notable occurred in the very distinct periods in Japanese history that popularized unique forms of garden styleHeian (781-1185), and the Kamakura (1186-1393). Resulting from these two golden ages of Japanese history came the stroll garden from the former period and the Zen garden from the later. As we shall see, the composition of these gardens where remarkably effected by the norms of architecture and the ideals of popular religion in these eras. Therefor, in understanding each garden style in its context, it essential to also take into account the social, historical, and theological elements as well as the main stylist differences. Japanese aristocrats from at least mid-eighth century customarily had gardens near their homes. During the Heian period a somewhat standard type of garden evolved in accordance with the Shinden type of courtier mansion (Bring and Wayembergh, p. 28-29). Characteristic of the Heian period was its extremely rigid class stratification; life for the farmers, merchants and artisans consisted of very simplified dwellings in comparison to those of members of the aristocracy. The architecture norm for aristocratic homes was in the Shinden-zurkuri style, which was clearly based on the principle that the individual parts of the building should be merged as much as possible into the garden (Yoshida, p.12). The main building, named the Shinden, represented the area reserved for the master himself, and always opened up to the south side of the garden. There were corridors, or tai-no-ya, connecting the Shinden to the rest of the buildings in the complex. There corridors created an enclosure which i s where a lake would be placed and where the stroll garden was erected. Kinkakuji, also known as the Golden Pavilion (1394), serves as an example of this Shinden type. The site in northern Kyoto was developed as a large retirement estate by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358-1409) beginning in 1394. The pavilion itself was sited the edge of a sprawling palace complex that no longer exists today. This was intended as proof that the warrior shogunate could contribute to the cultural and aesthetic life of the land to an extent equal to that of the imperial aristocracy. It has been recorded that the actual emperor of Japan visited Kinkakuji in 1408, the first time an emperor had ever stayed with a person that was not a member of the imperial court. The shogun died the year after. After his death the palace was turned over to the Rinzai sect of Zen Buddhism and it has remained under its control ever since. The Golden Pavilion is a three-story viewing and pleasure pavilion constructed on the edge of a pons as the focal point to a much larger garden on the grounds of the Rokuoni Temple. The pavilion itself is based on
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Streets of London (by Frank Mc Tell) essays Streets of London (by Ralph Mc Tell) How to explain the songs popularity Ralph Mc Tells song Streets of London is about the everyday poverty which we, the healthy and wealthy part of our society, dont seem to recognize. The song tells the story of an old, impecunious man who used to be a successful seaman, a hero. In the past, the old man was respected and admired by the society, but in the same way his medal ribbons fade, the societys memory of the former hero fades. Ralph Mc Tell is able to make us feel guilty and responsible when listening to his song as he sings about a man who was once a decent, hard working person like most of us are. We can see ourselves in the old mans wretched position and that makes us feel frightened and pensive. Most people think that poverty only exists in Third World Countries, where there is not enough to eat and the water is polluted but Ralph Mc Tell doesnt sing about the enormous poverty of millions of people in Africa or Asia, he sings about the (individual) poverty we can find in our neighbourhood and in our own family. He makes us aware of the seriousness of poverty and due to the fact that each one of us could end like the old man in the song, we suddenly worry about the poverty described by Ralph Mc Tell. The song blames us for ignoring the lonely and poverty- stricken persons who live in our city, village or vicinity (let me take you by the hand and lead you through the streets of London). An other reason for the songs immense popularity is, in my eyes, that Ralph Mc Tell uses many symbols in his song (yesterdays papers telling yesterdays news, looking at the world over the rim of his teacup). Only by analysing the song very carefully, we can really understand what it tries to tell us. We realise that the persons mentioned in the song do not have any responsibility for thei...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Rape of women as a weapon of war - Essay Example It has been misinterpreted as a sex act, but for the victim, it is far from being erotic, sensual or pleasurable. It entails more of aggression and fear in the guise of passion. (Rosen para. 8 http://www.counterpunch.org/rosen04042008.html) Rape has been widespread among warring forces throughout Africa, Southern Europe, and parts of Asia. These include conflicts in Darfur, Somalia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Peru, Uganda, C d parts of Asiaovina, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Cambodia, ngo, rnment troops wal troops. During the day, they carry heavy materisyprus, East Timor, Haiti, Liberia, Peru and Uganda. (Rosen para. 7 http://www.counterpunch.org/rosen04042008.html) Why is rape being used as a weapon? A probable and major reason for this perhaps is because the rapists are trying to undermine or obliterate enemy communities through sexual violence. It is also surmised that rape is a form of genocide. In Bosnia, the Serbian camps are attempting to make it a Serbian state by impregnating Muslim mothers with Serb babies. More than 40,000 Muslim women are estimated to have been raped, and those who were impregnated were forced to bear the child. (Clifford and Ntiricya pg. 1 http://allafrica.com/stories/200712230021.html; Robson para. 9 http://www.newint.org/issue244/rape.htm; Rosen, para. 30 http://www.counterpunch.org/rosen04042008.html) Although the issue has only been brought up recently, the raping of women has been around since the ancient times. In the Old Testament, there are accounts of women being raped and kidnapped by conquering tribes, and they are usually forced to marry their captors to survive. Civil War general William Tecumseh Sherman pioneered total war in 1846. He believed that conflict should not only involve recognized combatants but the enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s entire society as well, from its natural resources to other aspects of their civilian life. (Rosen, para. 4,
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
For economic's The Business Cycle - Term Paper Example Policy makers can determine business cycles by observing work productivity gains. This economic factor refers to output per given worker. Increasing work productivity gain has a negative relationship inflation rate. If work productivity per worker goes up there is reduction in production cost that ultimately results into lower prices of goods and services and decreased inflation rate. Despite the above economic leading indicators, investors have relied heavily on stock market to determine the trends in business cycle. It has been observed for so long that when there is decline in the stock market, the economy follows suit. However, less information is available on whether stock markets may result to better or worse performance of economy. This is an area that needs further research to establish the relationship between the stock market and business cycle or economy. There have been arguments that stock market has no direct effect on the economy as a whole. The stock market only acts as mirror that corrects beliefs of people about what may happen in the economy, but can not be said to be a certain indicator of economy.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Logistics and Supply Chain Management - Essay Example Supply chain management is therefore the process of controlling the system of downstream and upstream organizations of material, information. These processes are the ones that assist in the manufacture of products and services for customers. Logistics is the word for all the processes involved in getting the right product, in the right way, quality and quantity, in the right time, for the right customer and at the right cost . Many scholars have tried to clarify the difference between logistics and supply chain management. From their works, we can analyze that supply chain management was derived from logistics. From the traditionalist point of view, supply chain management is a part of logistics. In the traditionalist view, the latter is the wider field. In a unionist view, logistics is a part of supply chain management since the latter is a wider concept. However, a more neutral Ã¢â¬ËintersectionistÃ¢â¬â¢ approach has emerged which states that logistics and supply chain manageme nt are interrelated disciplines since both can be applied to the benefit of the company in terms of cost savings and enhancing the service . Any supply chain, be it straightforward or complex, begins with the customer and ends with the customer. The chain begins with the customer since the client must first make a commitment to buy the product being sold. By contacting the office, a sales order for the required quantity is prepared. If the product is to be manufactured, the sales order is taken to the production plan and it includes the requirements that need to be fulfilled. Planning is the next step. In planning, the company creates a production plan which will effectively manage the process and make sure it runs smoothly and effectively. The next step is purchasing. Here, the company receives the list of raw material needed to make the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s request and the purchasing department writes and sends out purchasing orders to their preferred suppliers to provide the necessa ry items within the set time. Inventory is the next step. Here, the company checks the quality and accuracy of the materials received from the suppliers. They also record the materials into their inventory management system and take them for storage. The supplier then sends an invoice for the items delivered. While following the production plan previously written, the raw materials are moved to the production floor. In the production floor, the company transforms these raw materials into the finished goods. The final items are tested to make sure they meet the standards of both the company and the client then stored in the warehouse. The final step is delivery of the items to the customer. Here, the shipping department ascertains the best way to ship the products to the customer. After delivery, the customer signs to accept delivery and the company sends an invoice for the delivered goods to the customer. Comparative Profiles of the Organizations This research paper gives a comparis on of two companies involved in the distribution and supply of grocery. One is Seal Honey and the other goes by the name Fresh Mart. These two companies are head to head competitors. They sell the same products and there is no much difference in their pricing. Both companies have been in the industry for
Friday, November 15, 2019
Development of Hard Water Sensor using Fluorescence Ph.D. Thesis: Dibyendu Dey Development of hard water sensor using fluorescence resonance energy transfer 7.1. Introduction Ã¢â¬Å"Hard waterÃ¢â¬ has high mineral content in compare to Ã¢â¬Å"soft waterÃ¢â¬ . Generally the hard water is not harmful to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s health, but can cause serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness should be monitored to avoid breakdowns of the costly equipments that handle water. The hardness of water is determined by the concentration of multivalent cations in water. The most common cations found in hard water include Ca2+ and Mg2+. The presence of dissolved carbonate minerals (CaCO3 and MgCO3) provide a temporary hardness in water, which can be reduced either by boiling the water or by addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) [1, 2]. On the other hand the dissolved chloride minerals (CaCl2 and MgCl2) cause the permanent hardness of water that can not be removed easily, as it becomes more soluble as the temperature increases . In that sense it is very important to identify the permanent hardness of water before use. The FRET phenomenon may be very effective tool for the designing of hard water sensors. Based on the FRET between two laser dyes here we demonstrated a hard water sensor. To the best of our knowledge this could be the first attempt, where FRET process has been used for the detection of the hardness of water. FRET between two molecules is an important physical phenomenon, where transfer of energy from an excited fluorophore to a suitable acceptor fluorophore occurred [4, 5]. This technique is very important for the understanding of some biological systems and has potential applications in optoelectronic and thin film devices [6Ã¢â¬â10]. Combining FRET with optical microscopy, it is possible to determine the approach between two molecules within nanometers. The main requirements for the FRET to occur are (i) sufficient overlap between the absorption band of acceptor fluorophore and the fluorescence band of donor fluorophore and (ii) both the donor and acceptor molecule must be in cl ose proximity of the order of 1Ã¢â¬â10 nm [4, 5]. The intervening of solvent or other macromolecules has little effect on the FRET efficiency. If the distance between the donor and acceptor changes then FRET efficiency also changes. In this chapter of the present thesis we tried to investigate the effect of Mg2+ or Ca2+ or both on the FRET efficiency between two fluorophores, Acf and RhB in presence of nanoclay sheet laponite. Here we have chosen Mg2+ or Ca2+ because the presence of these two cations mainly determines the extent of hardness of the water. Our investigation showed that FRET efficiency decreases with increasing salt concentration. It has also been demonstrated that with proper calibration, FRET between Acf and RhB can be used to sense the hardness of water. 7.2. Experimental 7.2.1. Solution preparation Both the dyes Acf and RhB were used in our studies are cationic in nature. The clay mineral used in the present work was Laponite. Dye solutions were prepared in Milli-Q water. For spectroscopic measurement the solution concentration was optimized at 10Ã¢Ëâ6M. In order to check the effect of hard water components (Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions) on spectral charecteristics, MgCl2 and CaCl2 were added to the dye solution. The clay dispersion was prepared using Millipore water and stirred for 24 h with a magnetic stirrer followed by 30 min ultrasonication before use. The concentration of clay was kept fixed at 2 ppm throughout the experiment. To check the effect of clay on the spectral characteristics the dye solutions (Acf and RhB) were prepared in the clay suspensions (2 ppm). In order to check the effect of salt on spectral characteristics in presence of clay, first of all the salts were added in the clay dispersion at different concentration. Then the dyes were added in the salt mixed clay dispersions. In all cases the clay concentration was 2 ppm and the dye concentration was 10Ã¢Ëâ6M. 7. 3. Results and discussion 7.3.1. Sensing of Hard Water by FRET FRET between Acf and RhB has already been studied and the results are shown in details in chapter 5 of this thesis. Here in this chapter we have used this same FRET pair for the sensing of water hardness. Our main purpose is to detect CaCl2 and MgCl2 or their mixture as a permanent hard water component in aqueous solution by using the FRET process between Acf and RhB. Fluorescence spectra of aqueous solution of Acf-RhB mixture in presence of MgCl2, CaCl2 and their mixture (CaCl2+MgCl2) have been studied (figure 7.1). For all the cases, the concentration of CaCl2/MgCl2/their mixture was kept at 0.06 mg/ml, which is the initializing concentration of hard water known as moderately hard water. Fig. 7.1. Fluorescence spectra of Acf+RhB (1:1 volume ratio) in water solution (1), with MgCl2 (2), CaCl2 (3), and CaCl2+MgCl2 (4), pure Acf (5), pure RhB (6). Dye concentration was 10-6M and salt concentration was 0.06 mg/ml. It was observed that the transfer of energy from Acf to RhB decreased in presence of salt (shown in table 7.1). The FRET efficiencies are calculated by using the FÃ ¶rster theory. The introduction of cationic Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in the solution may cause an increase in the electrostatic repulsion between cationic Acf and RhB molecules which can result in a large intermolecular separation. Accordingly, the FRET efficiency decreases. Samples E% Acf+RhB 11.37 Acf+RhB+ CaCl2 1.7 Acf+RhB+ MgCl2 5.2 Acf+RhB+ MgCl2 +CaCl2 4.38 Acf+RhB+clay 78.17 Acf+RhB+ CaCl2 with clay 37.78 Acf+RhB+ MgCl2 with clay 51.59 Acf+RhB+ MgCl2 +CaCl2 with clay 48.18 Table 7.1 Values of energy transfer efficiency (E %) for Acf and RhB mixture (1:1 volume ratio) in different conditions. The salt concentration was 0.06 mg/ml (moderately hard water). Fig. 7.2. Fluorescence spectra of Acf+RhB (1:1 volume ratio) in clay suspension (1), with MgCl2 (2), CaCl2 (3), and CaCl2+MgCl2 (4) pure Acf with clay (5), pure RhB with clay (6). Dye concentration was 10-6M and clay concentration was 2 ppm and salt concentration was 0.06 mg/ml. In the present study our aim is to design a sensor which can sense the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ or both by observing the change in FRET efficiency. Accordingly it is very important to have large FRET efficiency between Acf and RhB as well as noticeable change in FRET efficiency between Acf and RhB due to the introduction of hard water components (Ca2+ or Mg2+), so that we can use it as a hard water sensor with minimum error level. Accordingly in order to enhance the FRET efficiency, we have incorporated nano clay laponite in Acf-RhB mixture (figure 7.2). It has been observed that the FRET efficiency increases in presence of laponite particle. The reason of increase in FRET efficiecy in presence of clay has been explained in details in chapter 5. It was also observed that the transfer of energy from Acf to RhB decreases quite remarkably due to the introduction of CaCl2/MgCl2/their mixture for the concentration of 0.06 mg/ml in presence of clay. It was observed that the transfer of ene rgy is much smaller due to the presence of CaCl2 in compare to MgCl2. (Table 7.1 summarize the calculated efficiencies). Fig. 7.3. Schematic representation of FRET between Acf and RhB in presence of clay and salt. The decrease in FRET between Acf and RhB in presence of hard water components, must involve the reaction of the cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) present in hard water with the clay minerals through cation exchange reaction. In general, this bonding energy is of the order: Ca > Mg > K > H > Na. Thus the probability of adsorption of Ca2+ in clay suspension is more than Mg2+. The tendency of Ca2+ ion to interact with the negatively charged clay layers is more compared to Mg2+ ion of same concentration of both clay suspension and salt solution. Accordingly, most of the negative charges in the clay surfaces are neutralized by Ca2+ ion compared to Mg2+ ion and there exists very few unoccupied negative charges on the clay surface for the cationic dye molecules to be adsorbed. As a result the separation between the cationic dye molecules increases more in CaCl2 solution rather than MgCl2 leading to a less FRET in presence of CaCl2 compare to MgCl2 (shown schemetically in figure 7.3). 7.3.2. Variation of salt concentration In order to check the extent of hardness on the FRET efficiency, we have measured the fluorescence spectra of Acf+RhB mixture with different salt (MgCl2, CaCl2, and MgCl2+CaCl2 mixture) concentration in presence of clay laponite and the FRET efficiency have been calculated. It has been observed that the FRET efficiency decreases with increasing salt concentration of either MgCl2 or CaCl2, or their mixture (figure 7.4). This result suggests that it is possible to sense the hardness of water by observing the change in FRET efficiency with salt concentration. Fig. 7.4. The fluorescence spectra of AcfÃ¢â¬âRhB mixture in presence of clay with varying amount of salt (MgCl2+CaCl2 mixture) concentration viz. 0.05 mg/ml (1), 0.06 mg/ml (2) and 0.12 mg/ml (3). Inset shows the variation of FRET efficiency as a function of salt concentration of either MgCl2 or CaCl2, or CaCl2+ MgCl2 mixture from 0.03 mg/ml to 0.20 mg/ml. Salt concentration (mg/ml) FRET efficiency (E%) in presence of MgCl2 CaCl2 MgCl2+CaCl2 mixture 0.03 78.52 64.27 73.73 0.05 71.55 55.32 68.34 0.06 51.59 37.78 48.18 0.08 32.47 18.75 21.57 0.12 19.67 10.54 13.48 0.20 11.34 5.67 07.38 Table 7.2 Values of energy transfer efficiency (E %) for Acf-RhB mixture (1:1 volume ratio) at different salt (MgCl2, CaCl2, MgCl2+CaCl2 mixture) concentration in presence of clay. MgCl2 and CaCl2 mixture were prepared by adding 1:1 volume ratio of individual salts of same concentration. 7.3.3. Design of sensor In the process of hard water sensing first of all clay (laponite) dispersion will be prepared using the sample water followed by addition of dyes (Acf and RhB). By observing the FRET efficiency between Acf and RhB it would be possible to sense the hardness of the test water. Fig. 7.5. FRET efficiency of Acf-RhB mixture for the different concentration of CaCl2 + MgCl2 in presence of clay (values of FRET efficiencies were calculated from spectra of Fig. 7.4). From figure 7.5 it has been observed that the FRET efficiency for 0.06 mg/ml and 0.12 mg/ml concentration are 48.2% and 13.5% respectively. If the FRET efficiency is observed to be higher than 48.2%, then the water will be recognized as soft water whereas, if the efficiency lies in between 13.5% and 48.2% then the water will be recognized as moderately hard. On the other hand if the observed FRET efficiency is less than 13.5% then the water will be recognized as very hard. Therefore with proper calibration it is possible to design a hard water sensor which can sense hard water very easily. 7.4. Conclusion In order to demonstrate hard water sensor based on FRET, we have investigated the FRET between Acf and RhB in presence of salts CaCl2 or MgCl2 or both. It was observed that the presence of hard water components Ca2+ or Mg2+ or both affected the FRET efficiency to a large extent. In presence of CaCl2 or MgCl2 the FRET efficiency is decreased to 37.78% and 51.59%, respectively. With suitable calibration of these results it is possible to design a hard water sensor that can sense the water hardness within the range 0.03Ã¢â¬â0.2 mg/ml. Here the incorporation of clay platelate laponite enhances the sensing efficiency.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Niccolo MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, Ã¢â¬Å"The Qualities of the PrinceÃ¢â¬ is a very interesting piece of literary work that has an atypical way of depicting the qualities of a successful leader. Machiavelli developed a way of thinking that changes the human perspective on what a quality leader is made of. He took what people were afraid to say aloud and voiced it in a way that almost unraveled the truth about what people in power were really like. Machiavelli comes to a junction is his essay when he writes; Ã¢â¬Å"being disarmed makes you despisedÃ¢â¬ . When Machiavelli says this he means to say that in order for someone to appear powerful they must be armed and physically capable of warfare. In his essay he very clearly portrays that in order for someone to have control and ultimate power, they must have the means to start a war. Machiavelli makes the point in his essay that people are ultimately naÃ ¯ve and easily manipulated and that in order to be an exceptional leader, you must be unafraid to do whatÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to survive the political wilderness. This is not to say that you should go about your power abusing it because you have the power to, but rather use it in situations when it is necessary. He also says that it is more important to be feared then loved but not too feared because then people may get the idea to over throw you. I found this essay quite radical but very interesting. I think that although I wish it werenÃ¢â¬â¢t true, that most politicians today have this sort of mindset. I believe this piece of literary work to be the most contradicting of MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s time.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËGrowing UpÃ¢â¬â¢ The Instant noodles market in India is finally coming of age after over 25 years The instant noodles category in India was, in a sense, created by NestlÃ © with the introduction of their Maggi brand in mid-1980s. The concept of Ã¢â¬Ë2-minute noodlesÃ¢â¬â¢, positioned as a quick snack option for children, found acceptance with both the children and their mothers as well. Having built and nurtured the categoryÃ¢â¬â¢s evolution, the brand name Ã¢â¬Å"MaggiÃ¢â¬ almost became a synonym for the instant noodles category itself. During the 1990s and 2000s, Maggi faced little competition. Despite the entry of players like Top Ramen (Indo Nissin Foods) in 1991, ChingÃ¢â¬â¢s Secret (Capital Foods) in 1996, and Wai Wai (CG Foods) in 2005, Maggi continued to retain its dominant position. However, in the past few years, we have seen consumer goods giants ITC (Sunfeast Yippee!), Glaxo-Smithkline (Horlicks Foodles), and Hindustan Unilever Limited (Knorr Soupy Noodles) foray into this lucrative market with differentiated product offerings. These brands have brought a competitive intensity to the space. This market now also comprises private labels like Feasters (AV Birla Retail), Tasty Treat (Future Group), and Smart Choice (Spencers). Even though Ã¢â¬ËMaggiÃ¢â¬â¢ continues to dominate the market with a share in excess of 75%, the entry of multiple brands and the increasing aggression of existing brands has taken away several percentage points from MaggiÃ¢â¬â¢s market share. The categoryÃ¢â¬â¢s strong growth, and ever widening consumer acceptance, makes it a lucrative option for various players. The instant noodles market is estimated at ~INR 2200 crore (USD 402.7 million) and is projected to grow at a healthy annual rate of ~15% over the next few years. There are several reasons behind the growth this category has realized, in India, some of which are mentioned below. Ã¯â · Changing consumer lifestyles Ã¢â¬â Over the years, the change in consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ preferences and eating habits, and their wider global exposure, along with an increasingly younger population, the growth in the middle class, with more nuclear families, and the growing time-poverty (as a result of the rise in the number of working couples) has given a boost to the convenience food segment. As a result, the instant noodles market has charted a high growth trajectory thanks to its availability, affordability, anytime-anywhere consumption and convenience, being a quick meal requiring minimal cooking. Instant noodles have also emerged from being a snack food or an occasional, alternate eating option to a mainstream food item of choice featuring regularly in consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ grocery baskets. Ã¯â · Growing customer base Ã¢â¬â The emergence of instant noodles has added a new dimension to consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ meals; noodles are being consumed not just by kids (who are the core target audience) as an evening snack or a Ã¢â¬ËtiffinÃ¢â¬â¢ meal but by consumers across all age groups, as an eating option beyond the Ã¢â¬ËmundaneÃ¢â¬â¢ ones. While it continues to be a home snack, it is also increasingly being consumed at workplace, colleges, etc. Geographically too, the appetite for instant noodles is growing with players now eyeing the semi-urban and rural markets. The categoryÃ¢â¬â¢s penetration is low in India (~20-25%), thus presenting a lucrative opportunity for growth. Ã¯â · More options and variants: Players present in the space are innovating and adding value to establish a unique brand proposition in the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ mind. Some of the major developments in this direction include: o Introduction of new flavors: To kindle the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in the category and also cater to the diverse and changing tastes of the consumer, instant noodles brands constantly enhance their product offerings by adding new flavors. In addition to the classic Masala and Chicken flavors, a wide range of flavors including Indo-Chinese, Chinese, tomato, etc. have been launched. 1 o Growing focus on health: Despite their fondness for instant noodles, consumers in India hold the notion that noodles are unhealthy, being made from Ã¢â¬ËmaidaÃ¢â¬â¢ which is seen as not being as healthy as Ã¢â¬ËattaÃ¢â¬â¢. To address this concern, brands are proactively introducing Ã¢â¬ËhealthyÃ¢â¬â¢ offerings as part of their product portfolio. Maggi and Top Ramen have their Ã¢â¬ËattaÃ¢â¬â¢ noodles, while Horlicks Foodles was launched entirely on the health platform, with the noodles made from wheat or multiple grains and including a vitamin-supplying Ã¢â¬Å"Health MakerÃ¢â¬ . Additionally, HUL has also positioned its Knorr Soupy Noodles as a healthy, fun-filled snack. o More packaging variants: Brands have introduced packs in different sizes, right from single noodle packs of 50-75 gm. to value eight noodle packs. Further, to increase the categoryÃ¢â¬â¢s penetration, brands like Maggi and Wai Wai have extended product offerings in an even smaller pack size, priced at INR 5. o Category extension from pouch to cup noodles: A vital development in the market was the extension from pouch noodles to cup noodles that are ready-to-eat, on adding hot water, unlike pouch noodles that require to be cooked. The driving factor here is that convenience (the need for an on-the-go meal) is gaining in prominence in consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ lives owing to the rise in a younger working population and a migrant population, the increasing population of double income households with more working women, etc. Top Ramen offers different flavors in cup noodles, mini cup noodles, and mug noodles. Maggi and Wai Wai have extended to cup noodles as well. Modern formats, which provide high product visibility and good product displays, are acting as a good marketing platform for brands to promote their product offerings via consumer schemes like price discounts, bundled offers, sampling for new launches, etc. However, about 80-90% of instant noodles sales takes place through traditional formats (mom and pop stores), which is not surprising since noodles are a regular grocery item. Thus players need to invest significantly in distribution and establish a widespread retail reach and tap into a larger consumer base. Therefore, distribution remains an important enabler for this category. Another key challenge for players is to maintain price points and margins given the fluctuations in input costs. Usually, they opt to reduce pack sizes, while keeping prices constant, to counter the challenge. In its journey of 28 years, the instant noodles market has undergone several changes, viz. the entry of several new players, innovations in products and value-addition in packaging, the emergence of modern formats, a shift in consumption towards convenience foods, etc. Going forward, this market will continue to register a doubledigit growth and will witness higher competitive intensity. The strength of the distribution networks and media campaigns of the new entrants has the potential to be a game-changer and may eventually cause Maggi to face some serious competition, and perhaps even make this pioneering brand fight to defend its dominance. This category is finally coming of age and promises to be an interesting space to watch in the next few years. Authored By: Pragya Singh Ã¢â¬â Associate Director, Retail Ashima Anand- Senior Consultant, Retail
Friday, November 8, 2019
Virgin Atlantic Airlines Executive Summary Virgin Atlantic Airlines , September 2014). Retrieved on 06/09/14 from virgin-atlantic.com/us/en.html Investopedia. (2014, September 2014). Retrieved on 06//09/14 from investopedia.com/terms/e/europeanunion.asp European Monetary Policy. (Septmber 2014). Retrieved on 06/09/14 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/european+monetary+union Chamberlin, G. (September 2009). Economic Review Sep 2009. Economic and Labour Market Review Gillespie, A. (June 2009). Foundations of Economics. New York; Oxford University Press
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Summary #18 Example Summary #18 Ã¢â¬â Essay Example AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR Aggressive Behavior Aggressive behavior is learnt and shared from the father to the child since the boys learndirectly by observing the behavioral patterns of the father. In the ordinary and conventional sense, children do not only learn from the things that their parents advice or tell them to do but also emulate from their actual behavior (Rosenthal & Zimmerman, 2014). The fact that the father shouts, screams and is even physically violent with the boys put them in a bad headspace emotionally. When the father pushes the boys to the ground, their emotional stability and acumen is shaken and they are left psychologically scared. Thus, as a result, it would be ordinary for the children or the boys to transfer the same type of treatment and violence to the other younger children or people. This stems from the fact that the children are modelled or mentally prepared to reasons that violence either through shouting, screaming or physically manhandling their peers is the best way of resolving issues and disagreements. Intuitively, the elder children who are manhandled and shouted to transform and do the same to the younger child by lifting him up by his ears while they are screaming at him. The younger child also does not take the shouting in a soft manner and instead also raises his voice to the other older children. It is my humble opinion and respectful li9ne of thought that the younger child also emulates the stance demonstrated by the father relative to violence. Thus, it is fair to mention that the violent and abusive behavior of the father directly affects the children to act in the same manner to all their other counterparts.ReferenceRosenthal, T. L., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2014). Social learning and cognition. Academic Press.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Compensation - Essay Example Each company in every industry across all countries has accountants who similarly have the same qualifications and skills with all the other accountants and thus, accounting is one example of a benchmark job. Once an individual is able to afford all the basic needs then the attainment of these needs seizes to become a motivating factor. However, the individual can become motivated again if he or she focuses on achieving other higher needs such as safety or social needs. If a school administrator sets a target for teacher to achieve for example to ensure that more than 50% of the students achieve grade B and above, if the teacher achieves this target he or she will receive an extra pay that is known as merit pay. According to the writings by (Milkovich, 450-700), broad banding is described as a practice whereby the human resource categories different jobs in Ã¢â¬ËbandsÃ¢â¬â¢ based on a broader classification such responsibilities and skill requirements. Broad banding eliminates small grouping of jobs, which usually result in many jobs groups. (Milkovich, 450-700), noted that among the key advantages of broad banding is that it reduces rivalry between employees in an organisation since it eliminates the emphasis on hierarchy or status within the organisation. Secondly, broad banding is advantageous to an organization because it makes the payment structure to be more flexible and responsive to the vary needs of the evolving environment. (Milkovich, 450-700) stated that it is not possible for certain organisations or countries to adopt the practice of broad banding, this is especially if the organisation or countries gives much regards to status or titles because of social factors and either the country or organization prefers the use of well defined procedures and policies. However, the practice can easily be adopted in organizations that are much flexible and prefer cross or lateral
Friday, November 1, 2019
An introduction to accounting - Essay Example Accounting may not be popular but it is a must for any organisation,be it in the manufacturing or service sector, whatever its size,whichever country it is based in and whether or not its aim is to maximise profits.Without accounting resources cannot be managed effectivelyIt is irrefutable that any business organization requires the use of accounting. In fact, the use of accounting dates back from the time a business organization is formed. A company cannot function efficiently without the use of a system which list down the financial transactions that it undertakes (Atrill and McClaney 2001). In the simplest sense, accounting can be defined as the system which provides information about the financial situation of an organization.Since accounting is all about recording financial transactions, it is then a necessity for any organization which deals with money (Atrill and McClaney 2001). And looking at the global business situation right now, no business entity is ever existent without financial resources. Accounting provides a systematic and comprehensive way of recording a company's financial transactions. For one, the accounting equation serves as the basis of the company's financial statements recognizing the principle of double-entry bookkeeping in accounting. The accounting equation is as follows: assets less liabilities = shareholders' equity. It can also be expanded as: assets less liabilities = shareholders' equity (revenue less expenses)(Keown et al 2005). ... Accounting aids a business organization to gather three types of information namely operating, financial, and managerial (Atrill and McClaney 2002). All companies are required to use accounting for operating purposes or for daily activities in order to record and determine the amount of salary owed to workers, track sales, and level of inventory. Secondly, financial information is also needed in order to attract shareholders and creditors. The company often needs to prove to these providers of financial aid that it is worthy of receiving resources. Thus, a company should record transactions and report them to these interested entities. Lastly, accounting is used for decision making. Companies are interested to know how much inventory should be produced in a given month, whether to manufacture in-house or source from a supplier, whether to acquire a new equipment or not. It should be noted that the purposes and information provided by accounting is used by any business organization whether from the goods or service sector. As long as there is money involved, transactions are irrefutably recorded. The financial resources are tracked through accounting. For one, the most common goal of a company which is to make money can only be evaluated if financial transactions are constantly monitored and recorded systematically. A business can only know whether it makes money or not when it employs a system which tracks its revenue and its expenses. However, it should also be stressed that accounting is also required even for not-for-profit business organizations. Non-government organizations like Red Cross and Youth for Christ employ accounting to record their expenses and budget