Monday, September 30, 2019

Disaster framework

This paper discusses the importance of national framework for disaster management to the managers involved. It also describes how the national framework is based and implemented at all levels of government. The framework is an essential document to managers because it gives them the guidelines, structures and procedures by which they can adopt at given level and situation.IMPORTANCE OF NATIONAL DISASTE FRAMEWORKThe National Response Framework (NRF) is a guide in which the nation uses to conduct response to hazards within a defined structure and which aligns the roles and responsibilities of government management levels, private sector organizations and Non Governmental organizations. The NRF has an objective of managing hazards and incidents that may impact individuals and businesses (Homeland, 2008). The response initiated will be to quickly deal with saving of lives, protect property, and protect environment and provision of basic humanitarian needs (Homeland, 2008)The framework is a work document for leaders in all levels of government together with executives and leaders of private sector and NGOs. This is based on shared responsibilities that require commitment from federal government and lower level governmental heads to be able to plan for response incase of emergency needs. The NRF is composed of main document, emergency support function (ESF), support annexes, incident annexes and partner guides. The ESF involves resources and capabilities needed in order for the operations to succeed such as transport, firefighting services, and medical services (Homeland, 2008).Support annexes include needed resources on day to day operations such as finances, manpower, donations and coordination with private sector. Partner guides are essential in defining the role and actions of leaders engaged in the emergency operations. For effective response of an emergency need, the framework gives detailed account of the specificity of dealing with the emergency guided by the National Incident Management System (NIMS) which has standard commands and management structures essential in application during response operations.The NIMS calls for effective response using leaders’ capabilities, individuals and households. It teaches basic understanding of one’s roles and responsibilities. The NIMS guides leaders in designing plans, assessments and exercise at particular level, it also provides the needed resources and information collection. Each organization is able to define its roles and function within its area of operation and ensure efficiency (Homeland, 2008).The main levels in which the framework implements its response activities include local government, private sector/NGOs, states or territories and federal government. At lower level the local government’s leaders mobilize communities, NGOs and private sector to be engaged in arresting an incident within their area of operation. Leaders have a mandate to give leadership roles, p rotect and take care of the welfare of its people. The private sector on the other hand has a duty to protect and provide for its employees.While NGOs provide in depth knowledge, outreach services and support services (Homeland, 2008). The states have similar responsibilities but on larger scale than local governments. They have to coordinate private sector, NGOs and other assistance from other states, territories and tribal governments. The federal government is responsible for coordinating for resources under request of states governor. It has mandate to mobilize federal resources and federal capabilities under the leadership of secretary for homeland security (Homeland, 2008).The NIMS framework is designed in such way that it can be adapted at any level of government operations dealing with disaster. The framework also explains in detail the actions to be taken during the response activity. The framework has an enormous task of providing structures at national level where policie s and operational procedures are coordinated. These procedures can be implemented during operation because there is room for initiativeness and innovation. The aim is to accelerate the mechanisms for assessing the situation and reporting the incidents.The framework does erase the national coordination of response on large scale through presidential declaration. However, its activities remain in principle hence a more manageable and effective emergency response. (National Academies, 2007) The disaster response framework outlines the essential core part of its operation which defines the operational concepts duties and functions with an objective of protecting lives and property. This is based on five main principles for an effective response. These include ) Partnership engagement where leaders communicate to partners and vigorously support each other by setting up goals and capabilities together. The process thus emphasizes on need for progressive and continuous flow of information that will build on sustainable and improved service operation. Partnership will help the response unit to identify personnel, train them and acquire equipments for emergency operations in advance before the incident occurs.These will also help in effective coordination ((Homeland, 2008; Tierney, Lindell, & Perry, 2001) ) Response can also be based on particular tier. This is when management of emergency is specifically handled within the jurisdiction it arises i. e. by local leaders and communities depending on its magnitude (Homeland, 2008). c) The response must also adapt to change in its size of incident, scope of the incident and complexity of the incident hence the need for discipline and effective coordination of resources. d) The framework utilizes the understanding of unity and unified command in the process of on scene operations.These entail common application of effort and respect for the chain of command hence the use of Incident Command System and NIMS structural format . e) The act of readiness is emphasized in the framework which recommends that in order to have effective and successful operations, all individuals involved must be ready to participate and understand risks associated with the operation. This will therefore mean the leaders must establish good working relationships, train the communities on risk and safety measures and ensure effective application of the safety guidelines.The framework describes the roles and responsibilities of different level of government management giving the broad spectrum of understanding them as basis of separation of duties to eliminate cases of overlapping and duplication of roles. Understanding these roles help managers to be prepared for disaster response actions. These are †¢ Local government is responsible for mobilizing communities for a course of action led by its leaders that are supposed to offer guidance, resources, emergency management and policy, laws and budget adjustment necessary for dis aster response operation. Palen, Hiltz, & Liu, 2007; Homeland, 2008). †¢ Private sector and Non Governmental organization are called upon to provide and protect the welfare of its employees.Participate in planning, developing, collaborating and responding to emergency operations. The NGOs are resourceful in provision of services like identification of shelter and supplies location, provide food, shelter and clothing as well as provide information of victims who need help and coordinate assistance (Homeland, 2008). States, territories and other governments have a responsibility of supplementing and supporting the course of action taken by local governments through coordinating state resources, pass information to stakeholders and coordinate efforts from other neighboring states (Homeland, 2008). †¢ The federal government is responsible for coordinating emergency response from the national level. It is usually led by the president coordinated from the office of Homeland dome stic security.The office coordinates activities of other departmental organization affiliated to the emergency such as Incident management, FEMA, Law enforcement, National defence and support of civil authorities, international coordination, intelligence and federal department agencies (Homeland, 2008). The frame work thus gives details necessary for disaster managers to act when responding to disasters. These response actions include preparedness, response and recovery after the incident.In this case, preparedness involves issues like planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating and improving on the response initiatives based on the experiences learnt. Response deals with structural awareness, activation and availing of resources coordination and demobilization. Lastly the recovery plan will be put in place to meet the short term and long term needs for victims (Homeland, 2008). A disaster framework is helpful to managers because they give them the structures b y which they will implement national policies and operations at all levels. This is coordinated and integrated by the NIMS.The system emphasizes the need for managers to be conversant with planning which is essential in effective disaster response.CONCLUSIONTo sum up the national framework is important to disaster managers because it is designed in such way that they can be implemented at any level. The understanding of roles by leaders in a particular sector if significant in effective management of emergency . The national framework works through legal mechanisms that are coordinated at federal level and adopted at all levels of government management. Hence the need for cooperation and support between the public, government, private sector and NGOs

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Los Angeles in the movies

Los Angeles in the Movies: Banham ‘s or Davis' vision of the metropolis?Los Angeles has ever been represented by the media in really opposite ways, from the propaganda images in the 1920s advertisement Los Angeles as a Eden, to the noir novels of the 1940s, seeking to shatter that portraiture. Urban Planners and historiographers besides portion this split position. Reyner Banham ‘s The Architecture of Four Ecologies ( 1971 ) is like a court to the metropolis, researching everything that makes Los Angeles the manner it is ; from the expressway right down to surfboard design, Banham has an undeniable love for the metropolis. Mike Davis, in contrast pigments a really black portrayal of the metropolis in City of Quartz ( 1990 ) , concentrating on the corruptness, development and organized crime demographics that have made Los Angeles what it is today. In The Ecology of Fear ( 1998 ) , he concludes that the metropolis should ne'er hold been built due to the frequence and inevi tableness of natural catastrophes. These contrasting positions of Los Angeles have been represented infinite times through Hollywood films. The bulk of the clip, when a movie is set in Los Angeles, it is either important to the narrative, or at least has some function to play. One of the grounds why the metropolis is so popular with managers and film writers is because of this love-hate relationship. Which side of Los Angeles the manager depicts depends mostly on the narrative itself. In this essay I will look at an array of movies, analysing whether they portray Banham ‘s optimistic Los Angeles, or Davis ‘s black reading. I will concentrate on three movies in item ; L.A. Story, Volcano and ( 500 ) Days of Summer. Los Angeles has been a subject of argument throughout its life-time. Different parties have repeatedly tried to picture their version of Los Angeles, either for personal addition, or to merely state a good narrative. As Michael Sorkin comments, ‘L.A. Is likely the most mediated town in America, about unviewable save through the assumed scrim of its mythologizers ‘ . ( 1 ) Morrow Mayo describes Los Angeles since 1988 as a ‘commodity ; something to be advertised and sold to the people of the United States ‘ . This image created by authors, antiquaries, and publicizers which Davis refers to as the ‘Arroyo Set ‘ at the bend of the 20th century ‘created a comprehensive fiction of Southern California ‘ . ‘Their imagination, motives, values and fables were in bend infinitely reproduced by Hollywood, while go oning to be incorporated into the substitute landscape of suburban Southern California ‘ . As the Depression hit, it shattered the dream-addicted Los Angeles and created a settlement of authors intent on exposing the rough worlds of L.A. life. ‘These Depression-crazed center categories of Southern California became, in one manner or another, the original supporters of that great anti-myth normally known as noir†¦ .a sequence of through-the-glass-darkly novels†¦ repainted the image of Los Angeles as a deracinated urban snake pit ‘ Davis calls Banham ‘s ‘The Architecture of Four Ecolgies ‘ ‘the first serious jubilation of the metropolis since the supporter yearss of the 1920s ‘ . Banham went against traditional critics and declared ‘I love the topographic point with a passion that goes beyond sense or ground ‘ , he found virtuousness in about everything, including the car, hillside places and even surfboards. The Architecture of Four Ecologies became a ‘turning point in the rating of the metropolis by the international clerisy ‘ . Since so it has become acceptable and platitude to portray Los Angeles favorably, without seeking to sell it as a trade name. Mike Davis, amongst many others, does non portion Banham ‘s position. In City of Quartz and The Ecology of Fear he uses historical grounds to foreground the the societal dysfunction, economic disparity and menace from natural catastrophe, painitng an about tragic image of Los Angeles. This contrast has resulted in legion movies about Los Angeles being produced, each one with a clear message portraying the metropolis as either Banham ‘s glorious reading, or Davis ‘ black calamity.L.A Story ( 1991 )L.A. Story is a romantic comedy about a weather forecaster who finds love with the assistance of a speaking freeway mark. It is described as a ‘celebration of life and L.A Culture ‘ , and would decidedly be considered to be portraying Banham ‘s L.A. The rubric sequence shows many facets of Los Angeles in a positive and entertaining manor, such as a street of people all roll uping their newspapers in unison or a pool full of people beckoning at a winging hot dog publicity. Similarly to Banham, the movie does n't shy away from demoing the negative facets of Los Angles, instead it foreground them in a amusing manner. One illustration would be the chief character avoiding the gridlock traffic by driving on the pavement and through Parkss, or the humourous manner in which a minor temblor effects a eating house. Banham sees the ‘automobile as a work of art and the expressway as a suited gallery in which to expose it ‘ . During the title sequence of L.A. Story we are shown many illustrations of customized autos. There is besides an aged twosome sauntering along with walking AIDSs, who so acquire into a Ferrari and speed off, reminiscent of Banham ‘s mention to ‘Aunt Nabby ‘ driving her ‘chrome xanthous Volkswagen with reversed wheels and a voom-voom fumes. ‘ For Banham, the expressway system is ‘one of the greater plants of adult male ‘ , he sees it as an built-in portion of Los Angeles, non merely in the manner it transports its occupants but besides in the manner it makes us read Los Angeles, through ‘movement, non monument ‘ . He describes the Santa Monica/San Diego intersection as ‘a work or art, both as a form on the map, as a memorial against the sky, and as a kinetic experience as one sweeps through it ‘ . Davis, contrary to Banham, sees the expressway system merely as the devastation of the natural landscape. ‘The car besides devoured extortionate measures of premier land. By 1970 more than 1/3 of the surface country of the Los Angeles part was dedicated to the auto. What coevalss of tourers and migrators had one time admired as a existent life garden of Eden was now buried under an estimated 3 billion dozenss of concrete. ‘ Many films have depicted the expressway system in a positive manor, and L.A. Story is no exclusion, with it ‘s beautiful dark clip shootings of the busy expresswaies, or by following a individual auto down a coastal route, L.A. Story goes beyond that of many other movies by giving the expressway system ( and arguably Los Angeles itself ) a personality. A freeway mark starts pass oning with the chief character, stating ‘Los Angeles wants to assist you ‘ . The fact that a expressway mark was chosen as the method of communicating with the chief character shows what an of import function the expressway system plays in this film, and besides within Los Angeles itself. If Banham had to give Los Angles a method of communicating with a occupant, I think it would be the expressway ‘For the expressway, rather every bit much as the beach, is where the Angeleno is most himself, most integrally identified with his great metropolis ‘ . L.A. Story besides picks up on the thought that fledglings to the metropolis are a batch more likely to fall for its appeal and temptingness than people raised at that place. The British journalist acknowledges this when she compares her position to that of Rolland ‘s ; a Born and bred Angeleno. ‘Rolland thinks L.A. Is a topographic point for the brain-dead, he says if you turn off the sprinklers the topographic point would turn into a desert but I think, I do n't cognize, I think it ‘s a topographic point where they ‘ve taken a desert and turned it into their dreams. ‘ This is an thought that is really relevant in the instance of Davis and Banham. Davis was born and raised in a suburb of Los Angeles, and so has a really in deepness cognition of the workings of the metropolis and uses this to an advantage in his book. Banham on the contrary, moved to Los Angeles in the 1970s and instantly fell in love with the topographic point. As Davis quotes in the first page of City of Quartz, ‘The superficial incentive, the alien, the picturesque has an consequence merely on the alien†¦ ‘ Walter Benjamin.Volcano ( 1997 )The gap scenes to Volcano look to be that of peaceable expectancy for the twenty-four hours in front, porters can be seen puting out fresh towels around pools, store forepart are being polished, Canis familiariss are being walked. Radio snippings are played over the top of the images to make an feeling of what an mundane forenoon in Los Angeles consists of. ‘It ‘s 9am, temperature is 72 grades†¦ a backup on the 10 westbound on Hoover due to patrol activity on the offramp, seemingly there was a driveby hiting†¦ eyelid surgery, organic structure surgery, citric acid Peels, whatever it takes to make a whole new you†¦ a male child of 15 is sentenced to 10 old ages for armed robbery†¦ trial thrust a mercedes from your local trader†¦ ‘ At first glimpse it seems as though the movie is seeking to portray the sunny, Eden that is used to pull foreigners though coupled with what you are hearing on the wireless you realize that this Los Angleles is one of disenchantment. The manager is subtly foregrounding the metropolis ‘s jobs, such as the offense, the traffic jobs, the shallow decorative nature, whilst demoing occupants traveling about their day-to-day lives in their created Eden without concern for these factors. To foreground this point farther, the camera keeps cutting off to the volcanic activity beneath the metropolis, whilst the occupants are blissfully incognizant of the at hand catastrophe. The mode in which the series of images flicks through ‘all thing L.A ‘ is similar to that of Banham and the subjects discussed in his book, such as far-out commercial architecture, the Angeleo and his active life style, publicizing on measure boards every bit good as portion of edifices. Even so, the message here is clearly that of Davis ‘s position. That this superficial Eden has come at an tremendous cost and those that can non see it, are merely taking non to see it. Volcano plays on the fact that Los Angeles is built on top of mistake lines, whilst traveling beyond the usual temblor scenario. There is nil new about the secret plan of the movie, the thought that Los Angleles suffers a natural catastrophe and is destroyed ( or about destroyed ) has been a frequent Hollywood happening, with no less than 183 films about the devastation of the metropolis. Volcano sees the Office of Emergency Management ( O.E.M ) conflict an belowground volcanic eruption, that showers the metropolis in deathly fire bombs and an eternal tide of lava from the Brea Tar cavities, down Wiltshire Boulevard and through the tube ruddy line. In The Ecology of Fear Mike Davis begins by naming the legion everyday catastrophes L.A. experiences, from temblors, inundations and wildfire to hurricanes, cyclones and snowstorms. He talks about how Angeleos have become ‘genuinely panicky of their environment ‘ . â€Å" The destructive February 1992, January 1993, and January 1995 inundations ( $ 500 million in harm ) were mere brackets around the April 1992 rebellion ( $ 1 billion ) , the October-November 1993 firestorms ( $ 1 billion ) and the January 1994 temblor ( $ 42 billion ) . † He looks in great item at the catastrophes that have effected Los Angeles from the early 1900 ‘s to the late 1990 ‘s and utilizing informations of the country right back to the mediaeval period, concludes that L.A. was really built during a ‘mild ‘ period and in fact ‘nature may merely be waking up after a long sleep ‘ . Therefore the catastrophe films created are non rather every bit fictional as they seem, harmonizing to Davis ‘ research. Davis uses legion illustrations to do his instance a really strong one. ‘Market-driven urbanisation has transgressed environmental common sense. Historic wildfire corridors have been turned into view-lot suburbs, wetland liquefaction zones into marinas, and floodplains into industrial territories and lodging piece of lands ‘ . His position is that Los Angeles has been ‘putting itself in injuries manner for coevalss ‘ , Volcano portions this position that the catastrophes abundant in L.A. are at least in portion, caused by over development. The first minor eruption of the vent was caused by the building of a subway extension. The geologist who first suspects a vent comments ‘This metropolis is eventually paying for its haughtiness, constructing a metro on a metropolis that ‘s seismically active ‘ to which the caput of the O.E.M answers ‘it was a foolish adult male that built his house upon the sand, Matthew 7.26 ‘ . Volcano depicts Davis ‘s version of Los Angeles wholly, from the whole thought of this immense graduated table natural catastrophe, to the manner it was represented on screen. It even has a clear message about the racism nowadays in Los Angeles. The crew manage finally to deviate the lava to the sea, therefore avoiding the devastation of 1000s of places, even so, the vent caused one million millions of harm and killed 100s. A message comes up on screen at the terminal calling the vent as ‘Mount Whilshire – position: ACTIVE ‘ screening that this minor triumph is non a lasting one and Los Angles occupants are still under menace.( 500 ) Days of Summer ( 2009 )( 500 ) Days of Summer has been described as ‘some kind of love missive to Downtown Los Angeles ( and Ikea ) ‘ . It is the narrative of how Tom meets Summer, their relationship, and eventual break-up, presented in a non-chronological format, each scene being introduced by which of the 500 yearss it is. Initially this may look rather difficult to put as neither Banham nor Davis spoke favorably of Downtown. Davis ‘s description of business district is improbably black, a blunt contrast to the Downtown depicted in the movie. ‘Downtown is normally shrouded in pungent xanthous smog while heat moving ridges billow down Wilshire Boulevard. Amid 100s of estates of liquefied asphalt and concrete there is barely a weed, much less a lawn or tree. ‘ Banham does non needfully knock Downtown, but states that it is non peculiarly relevant in a metropolis such as Los Angeles, who has no demand for a conventional ‘centre ‘ . Downtown is given a note ‘because that is all downtown Los Angeles deserves ‘ . He explains that because the metropolis has had no regular centrifugal growing, ‘other countries in the fields, foothills and seashore had begun to develop before the Pueblo could mutate convincingly into an important business district ‘ . With its glamour shootings of old business district edifice outsides and landmarks like the Bradbury edifice, ( 500 ) Days of Summer clearly is n't Banham ‘s Downtown, although it is Banham ‘s Los Angeles. Tom see ‘s Downtown in a manner which most people do n't, he see ‘s the beauty in the metropolis and Teachs Summer to see it excessively. Similarly to how Banham see ‘s the beauty in Los Angeles along with her ugliness. Whilst indicating out the edifices along the L.A. Skyline, Tom explains to Summer ‘that ‘s a parking batch†¦ that ‘s besides a parking batch†¦ there ‘s a batch of beautiful material here excessively though, I wish people would detect it more ‘ . The manner Tom see ‘s Downtown is represented by his religion in love. There ‘s a polar scene in which Tom goes to a party at Summer ‘s flat anticipating to hold a romantic reunion but in world she is now with person else. The scene is split into two screens ; world and outlook. As he leaves, sad and dejected, the street and the downtown skyline turns into Tom ‘s hand-sketched version of the same position, so acquire ‘s erased. As Tom ‘s dream miss disappears, so does his dream metropolis. The morale of the narrative is non one of desperation though, by the terminal of the movie, both Summer and Tom believe in his thought of love, and see the metropolis for it ‘s beauty, merely as Banham saw Los Angeles ‘ beauty when other intellectuals were speedy to knock it. Originally the secret plan was to be set in San Fransico but that did n't accommodate the thought of Tom seeing the beauty in things a batch of other people miss. In an interview about the movie, the two authors discuss the pick of metropolis. Scott Neustadter: [ Tom ] romanticizes everything ; we had non seen L.A. as a romanticized metropolis in the manner that you see Rome in a Fellini film or New York in a Woody Allen†¦ Michael Weber: Or San Francisco, excessively. It likely worked out better because we know San Francisco is beautiful. For me being a New Yorker, I did n't cognize. I ‘d ne'er seen that side of L.A. Although the topic of Downtown is non as Banham would hold described, it is deserving observing that Banham was looking at a 1970s Downtown and could non hold forseen it ‘s present twenty-four hours transmutation. Even so, ( 500 ) Days of Summer remains a Banham-esque expression at Los Angeles non because of the peculiar part depicted but because of the manor in which they both make the audience expression past the normally held negative position to happen something beautiful. By and large, a blithe movie, such as a comedy normally portrays Banham ‘s version of Los Angeles whereas a more serious, tense movie, perchance a thriller, would utilize Davis ‘ theoretical account. Film noir ( including modern twenty-four hours versions ) and catastrophe films are two genres that entirely depict Davis ‘ woebegone reading. Chinatown ( 1974 ) , along with many other private oculus movies, explores the corruptness, confederacy and misrepresentation nowadays in Los Angeles. The movie unravels an intricate dirt affecting L.A ‘s fresh H2O supply, where husbandmans are being forced to sell their land because of drouth, after which a new dike would airt H2O at that place greatly increasing the real-estate value. The movie was based on a existent dirt that took topographic point at the beginning of the century. Davis goes into item about the procedure in which developers took control of the land through corruptness and as a consequence, land which should hold been a legal impossibleness to construct on was approved. Both Chinatown and Davis ‘ books remind us of how the selfish uses of rich and powerful business communities has left the land waste and abused. The many movies about the baleful side of Hollywood basically represent Davis ‘ Los Angeles. Sunset Boulevard ( 1950 ) trades with what becomes of yesterdays stars when they are cast aside. Norma Desmond refuses to believe that her stardom has passed and becomes more and more crazed as she lives out her fantasy universe in the privacy of her deteriorating sign of the zodiac. The manner in which the house is described as ‘like the adult female in great outlook, Mrs Haversham, decomposing in her nuptials frock ‘ creates a tragic image of L.A ‘s private life every bit good as the architecture. As Davis quotes from John Rechy ; ‘You can decompose here without experiencing it ‘ . The Italian Job ( 2003 ) would be an illustration of Banham ‘s L.A. Although they deliberately produce the worst traffic jam in Los Anegeles ‘ history, they whole thing is done with a sense of hyperbole and sleekness reminiscent of Los Angeles itself. The concrete river defence that Davis hated so much, is used as a agency to playfully prove out the auto ‘s public presentation during a chase scene. Banham describes some of the edifices in Los Angeles as ‘lovably pathetic ‘ , which would be a perfect manner to sum up The Italian occupation. The same can be said for Pulp Fiction ( 1994 ) , although there is a big sum of force within the movie, the frequent Pop-references create a Los Angeles that would non experience out of topographic point within Banham ‘s ‘Architecture antic ‘ chapter. The scenes in ‘Jack Rabbit Slims ‘ eating house every bit good as Jules and Vincent ‘s celebrated ‘Royale with cheese ‘ du ologue would be illustrations of this. In decision, Los Angeles is a favorite subject among managers and film writers and has been the set of infinite movies. The huge bulk of these representations of Los Angeles can suit neatly into opposite corners of the spectrum ; Banham ‘s glorious metropolis, where even the ugliness is portion of a larger beauty, or Davis ‘s clip bomb metropolis that should ne'er hold been built in the first topographic point. I believe that the ground why so many movies feature Los Angeles as a outstanding function is because of these contrasting attitudes. Few metropoliss can tout such utmost representations of the same subject. Most movies are out to either glorify something, or reprobate it, and Los Angeles provides the perfect background for that undertaking. ‘Los Angeles seems infinitely held between these extremes: of visible radiation and dark – of surface and deepness. Of the promise, in brief, of a significance ever vibrating on the border of significance ‘ Grahame Clarke

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Analytic Hierarchy Process in Operations Management

The project deals with the issue statement where the content is included about the target market, poor management, and lack of supervision by the managers and the supervisors, the focus is given on the profits of the company and the sales of the Custom Gear Inc. The problem the Custom Gear is experiencing is being stated in the project, which includes lack of the order size, lack of the future growth, inventory and the production management and many others. The actions that have been taken by Mr. Rhodes are narrated in the project. Inappropriate production process, inappropriate target market, poor management, poor control system, suppliers are not efficiently delivering raw materials and the profit earned by the Custom Gear is not adequate. Lack of the policy of the order size: Eastern gear has accepted a huge lot of the order size which is been seen in the exhibit 2 of the case study. It can be seen that in the order size 1 the total number of orders are taken are 80. In size 2, the number of orders is 53. In size 3 the number of orders are 69 and so on. On the other hand, President of the Eastern Gear has also taken decision to accept the huge orders from the customers. Lack of planning for growth: It appears that the company does not have any plan to expand their business in the future. This may be the reason and the company can face problems with respect to the cash flows, problems of capacity and other problems that are associated with the growth of the company. Inventory and production control: The expediting seems to be the rule rather than the exception. Twenty percent of the total orders have the rush tags on it. The processing time of the production has increased from two to four weeks, and there does not seem the production and inventory system are not in place. There are certain orders are being handled on the rush basis and that may be disruptive with the smooth flow of the production. Objectives that are followed in the operations: It is not clear that the operations should be focusing on the cost of the product, delivery and quality of the product and the flexibility. The focus should be laid down on the objectives of the operations. The order entry system is been flawed: The time is lost between the design that is desired by the customer is flawed because the order is taken by the James and therefore, is reviewed by the engineer. The problems that are faced by Mr. Rhodes are been divided into four parts: 1. Production process, 2. Target market, 3. Management, 4. Suppliers. In case these problems are resolved, the impact of these will be seen in the goodwill of the company. The sluggish production process of the Custom gear has caused problems related to the delays in the production, late deliveries and the poor quality of the product. The main problem of the production process of the custom gears is the standard job shop layout. Every workflow has the set of the processes. Depending on the operations, the materials flow from one work centre to another. The cycle below shows the path that the typical order will follow is: Taking into consideration the floor layout of the Custom gear, it can be taken into account that the work centre’s are not arranged into the correct order of the workflow. They can be said to be unstructured. To get rid of this problem the layout of the shop should be arranged in the following manner: The main target of the Custom Gear’s is the engineering research and the development laboratories or the manufacturers. These result in the number of the small number of the gears. Custom gear is losing the market share as it is targeting small manufacturers who order very small amount of the gears from the company. This results in the low sales and revenue for the company. In order to increase the sales as well as the profits of the Custom Gear should try and target the large companies that are in need of the more of the custom gears. Doing this Custom Gear does not have to find more of the customers because the profits gained from one company would be huge. The management issues that the Custom Gear is facing are the past due raw materials in the shop. The manager and the supervisor must take note of the inventory that is lying on the shop. The materials that have expired are mostly because of the errors that have been caused by the supervisor or the manager. In order to get rid of this problem the supervisor should take extra care while placing the orders with the suppliers and avoid wastage of the resources. The company has also recorded many lost orders. Therefore, in order to get rid of the problem the management should ensure that all the orders are properly documented this ensures that the files should not be missing and there exists no complaints from the customer’s side about the lost orders. The operation strategy is related to the product, process, method, quality, cost and scheduling. Moreover, like any other organization the Custom gear has the definite relation with the operations strategy: The design of the product should have a match between the operations management, finance department and the supply chain management and should look at the customers need. The methods take into account the process of transforming raw material into the finished products. The process considers the conversion of inputs into outputs. Therefore, these two process in closely linked to the process design. The process selection and the facility layout takes into account the implications of the supply chain management. A cost is the variable factor that affects the pricing and the profits of the organization. Organizations that have high degree of productivity in comparison with their competitors have a comparative cost advantage. Custom Gear must plan the schedule orders deliberately. The rush orders and the large orders should be made carefully. Operating resources are necessary for the personnel and material which is generally necessary to carry out the project. The examples of the operating resources are materials, machines, labor, tools, fixtures and many others. Custom Gear must complete the process of the operating resources. The above-mentioned analysis that is been done on the Custom Gear Inc. the lack of proper and efficient operational controls will bring adverse changes in the organization. The sluggish production process, selection of suppliers and objectives of the sales target, the poor layout of the job shop also slowed down the production process and created confusion. The Custom Gear should target the large-scale manufacturing companies where they can get huge orders and earn the maximum revenues out of it. The production process should be changed the quality of the products should be given maximum attention. The resources that are getting wasted should be given utmost importance by the supervisor and the managers. Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., Harker, M., & Brennan, R. (2012).  Marketing: an introduction. Pearson Prentice-Hall, London. Becker, J., Kugeler, M., & Rosemann, M. (Eds.). (2013).  Process management: a guide for the design of business processes. Springer Science & Business Media. Chang, J. F. (2016).  Business process management systems: strategy and implementation. CRC Press. Davenport, T. H. (2013).  Process innovation: reengineering work through information technology. Harvard Business Press. Ferrell, O. C., & Hartline, M. (2012).  Marketing strategy, text and cases. Nelson Education. Fitzsimmons, J., & Fitzsimmons, M. (2013).  Service management: Operations, strategy, information technology. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Jeston, J., & Nelis, J. (2014).  Business process management. Routledge. Khanna, R. B. (2015).  Production and operations management. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.. Krajewski, L. J., Ritzman, L. P., & Malhotra, M. K. (2013).  Operations management: processes and supply chains. New York: Pearson. Subramanian, N., & Ramanathan, R. (2012). A review of applications of Analytic Hierarchy Process in operations management.  International Journal of Production Economics,  138(2), 215-241.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Bussiness Management Ch 16 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Bussiness Management Ch 16 - Essay Example rded as a type of communication or correspondence relationship that develops between the producer, product and consumer by means of the advertisement (Young, 2005). Advertising convinces people to continue their usage of a product or service or to purchase it to get good results. Advertisements make use of the brand or product for which, they are developed. The usage of the brand or product is to a great extent and the message that the advertisement gives is to adopt, buy or get a certain service, brand or product in order to be get facilitated as you were never before. Usually advertisements are made to make sure that the product or brand that is advertised will solve a respective problem of the consumer or will facilitate the consumer to do a certain task associated with the product or brand. One cannot depict that advertisements always make use of factual information related to the product or brand. The truth related to the efficacy of the product or brand comes in the forefront when it is used but the advertising is there to make people take a service, product or brand and to continue making use of it (Hackley, 2005). Advertising employs all the accessible media so that the common public can reach to the marketing of a product, brand or service. The mediums employed by advertising are television, radio, internet, billboards, brochures, newspapers, magazines, cinemas, buildings, telephone, transport and many more (Freeman and Moser, 2009). All the mediums of communication are employed for advertising. The developer or manufacturer of a product, brand or service makes use of certain professionals to develop advertisements of its products or services (Young, 2005). Media professionals have gained expertise in making advertisements of products and services, as they are fully aware of the persuasion techniques that can be adopted during marketing of a product or service. Advertising is done electronically as well as manually. Advertising of a product or service

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Creation and evolution Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Creation and evolution - Research Paper Example This paper will compare and contrast the two ideologies illustrating their similarities and differences. In addition, the paper will base its creationism comparison on Christianity. Creationism refers to the belief and the ideology that humanity exists and there is a deity which varies among the difference in beliefs (Comet, 117). Followers of this ideology believe that there is a creator who is responsible for the creation of the world and all inhabitants and components such as animals, natural resources and humans. This ideology is solely on the basis of the particular religion one believes in and is considered as a concept of faith. According to the book of Genesis in the Bible, the world was created by God in a timeframe of 7days (Comet, 117). One difference that exists between the two concepts is that in creationism everything has a purpose. It was all created uniquely and ideally by a super natural being to fulfill this purpose (Crothers, 234-235). In addition, this belief also states that God created everything according to its kind, for example, rats only make rats, sharks only make sharks and humans only make humans (Comet, 117). In contrast to creationism which is believes in a fixed status and existence of a supernatural being, evolution theories are based on the spontaneity and metamorphosis of humans and other components of nature in order to be better adjusted to the changing environment (Crothers, 234-235). This has often been termed survival of the fittest, whereby the species better suited for certain environmental conditions survive, whilst those that do not die and are unable to pass their genotypes and phenotypes to the next generation. (Scott, 55-64). In essence, the theory of evolution is not based on faith and religion like creationism, but rather on development. Using the example mentioned above, could result in rats evolving into sharks (Comet, 117). The

Nespresso Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Nespresso - Research Paper Example In accordance with Davids (2009) one of the most important advantages of Nespresso compared to other similar products is the high range of the blends available; moreover, it seems that each of these blends is different (Davids 2009); from this point of view, Nespresso offers to the consumers the ability to choose among the blends available, a chance which is not given to other products, such as the Metodo iperEspresso (Illy) which has only three blends (Davids 2009). Apart from the above characteristic, Nespresso is distinguished from other products of this type in terms of quality. Each of the Nespresso blends has been produced using roasted coffee from different areas of the planet; in accordance with Davids (2009) the blends of Nespresso are produced using coffee elements from Africa, Brazil and Colombia (Davids 2009). In this way, a unique combination – in terms of the aroma and flavor of coffee – is achieved. ... uite a long; the firm’s name has been particularly related to food for infants; the impression that all the firm’s products are of high quality can be easily developed – an assumption that, actually, it would be valid. The differentiation of Nespresso from the other – similar – products in the market is also highlighted in the article of Sharp (2007), published in the Independent. In accordance with Sharp (2007) Nespresso could be characterized as one of the most profitable products of the specific category bringing to its initiators a profit of approximately ?500 annually. The reasons for the success of Nespresso are analyzed by Sharp (2007) as follows: At a first level, it is noted that the firm that produced Nespresso, the Nestle, has been well known for the quality of its products. This fact has significantly helped the particular product to be welcomed by consumers internationally. However, in practice, it has been proved that Nespresso has a s eries of additional advantages, such as: its name: the name given to the product defines precisely its characteristics; there is no threat of misunderstanding in regard to the type and the general characteristics of the product; furthermore, its name is memorable, being distinguished from other similar products, the names of which are difficult to be remembered (Sharp 2007). The involvement of Nespresso in daily meals – as promoted by the firm’s marketing team – is also characterized as another significant advantage of Nespresso compared to the similar products of rivals. More specifically, Nespresso is offered, as an after-dinner option, to well – known (but not expensive) restaurants, such as Sketch and The Fat Duck (Sharp 2007); in this way, the product is made known to the public as an after-meal

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Bank of America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Bank of America - Essay Example The services offered by the Bank of America range from banking, asset management, investing as well as other additional products and services in the financial domain. The Bank of America Corporation offers a broad assortment of financial services and products by means of their numerous banking as well as nonbanking subsidiaries all over the United States of America and in certain parts of the global market. The bank offers its services in six major business divisions, viz. Deposits, Home Loans & Insurance, Global Card Services, Global Banking & Markets, Global Commercial Banking and Global Wealth & Investment Management (Bank of America, 2011). As on December 31, 2010, the Bank of America Corporation possessed assets worth $2.3 trillion and revenue values worth $111,390 million. The bank undertook the acquisition of Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc. on January 1, 2009. Consequent to the acquisition, the Bank of America has become one of the biggest wealth management companies in the globe wi th almost 19,700 wealth advisors and further 3,000 front-line consumers facing specialized staffs and in excess of $2.2 trillion in customer assets (Bank of America, 2010). Furthermore, Bank of America Corporation is the worldwide leading organization in corporate and investment banking as well as trading over an extensive variety of asset classes catering to the large corporations and institutions, governments, and individual clients throughout the world. The Bank of America also provides industry-leading support to around four million people owing small businesses and is the issuer of highest number of debit cards in the United States of America. It holds the leading position in credit card loans in Europe and possesses the second largest market share for credit offerings in the United States. The Bank of America has a well-built foothold in the mortgage business sector and is one of the foremost two mortgage service providers and instigators in the US (Bank of America, 2010). SWO T Analysis Strengths of Bank of America The Bank of America holds an important market position in the banking industry of the US and operates an enormous extent of operations in the nation. Bank of America has well-built and structured investment banking as well as trading operations. The performance of the bank in these two segments compensates any failures in commercial banking or other segments. The wide variety of financial products and services offered by the bank to both individual and institutional clients enable the bank to perform as a financial superstore. The Bank of America had in the past successfully and effectively incorporated with the organizations it has acquired. This successful integration with the acquired companies, with Merrill Lynch being the latest, has acted as an immense strength for the bank. Bank of America had paid off the Troubled Asset Relief Program funds worth $45 billion to the government. This has enhanced and strengthened the bank’s capabi lity to sponsor private funds (Bank of America, 2010). The Bank of Amer

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Old Spice case studey Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Old Spice studey - Case Study Example h of â€Å"The Man Your Man Could Smell Like’ campaign which involved a former NFL player whose role was to convince women to buy the products so that their partners would be like him or smell like him (Rowe, n.d). Although this advertisement was a success after realizing more than 26 million views on YouTube, the company devised the most successful advert incorporating social media so as to make the brand more successful. Through â€Å"the Response Campaign†, the organization was able to engage with the potential customers on a more personal level (Rowe, n.d). In this campaign, the organization made a post on the two main social media websites, Facebook and Twitter, which sparked responses and questions that were answered through videos. Creativity was used in response videos that were at least 180. Between these alternatives, the â€Å"the Response Campaign† would still have been the best. This is because of the strategies involved in its creation and communication to the potential customers. The aspect of being personal contributed to its success, as the customers require prompt reply. This was fulfilled by the many short videos released in a span of two days answering the questions and replying to the comments from the customers. In addition, the extensive usage of the social media was a way of boosting the campaign because social media comprises the group of the population that the company was targeting; the young generation. Furthermore, active involvement was a key aspect towards the success of the campaign. This is because it got the customers invested in the brand while not including direct advertising to the customers. Such strategies made sure that the campaign was a success leading to increase in sales and the brand name was saved. From a personal perspective, I would have taken a similar approach in the implementation of the solution. As a golden rule, a company should ensure that customer involvement is taken seriously for a brand name to remain

Monday, September 23, 2019

April Reading and Questions Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

April Reading and Questions - Coursework Example Re-centering whiteness is a theme that is seen as normal way of doing things while on surface all people are regarded as equal. The third theme, masking whiteness protects their superiority. From these themes, it can be seen that there is need to interrogate whiteness in order to realise the problematic assumptions that help to re center or mask the aspect of whiteness. It can also be seen that the issue of whiteness is hidden and it portrays itself in a subtle way in different organizations. The invisibility of whiteness has to be investigated in order to enhance organizational effectiveness when managing diversity. This helps all the people to freely give their ideas without any prejudice. i. What has made me uncomfortable through reading this article is that we are made to believe that we are all equal on surface while in actual fact there is a certain race that is seen as superior. In many multinational organizations, senior management posts are held by whites but there are also other people from other races who are capable of performing the same task. ii. What I had not realised is that the issue of whiteness is significantly gaining prominence in the world of management. Measures are being taken in order to try to address this problematic issue which gives other people more privilege than others on the basis of race. iii. My question is related to the measures that can be taken in order to change the status quo. While the aspect of whiteness is acknowledged in different sectors of the society, it can be seen that the whites have a hidden unfavourable privilege over other races which may be difficult to challenge since it is entrenched in people’s lives such that they see it as normal. This article is closely related to different incidences that I encounter in my life in many occasions. There is so much talk about the issue of equality among different people but it can be seen that there is a hidden

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Smoking in the UK - economic analysis of its costs Essay Example for Free

Smoking in the UK economic analysis of its costs Essay United Kingdom was the original state of smoking prevalence and smoking has caused widespread death of the first countries. According to ASH1 (2011) there are about 10 million adults who smoke cigarettes in Great Britain which is about a sixth of the total UK population. Throughout the United Kingdom, there was about one-third per cent of all the middle ages deaths caused by smoking. Therefore, United Kingdom is one of the most importance states of tobacco control. Government control on cigarette consumption through different instruments such as advertising-all advertising and promotion of tobacco are banned in the UK; taxation-taxation is probably the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption. Raising tobacco prices through taxation can result in significant benefits to the economy. For instance, a 5% price increase would result in 190,000 fewer smokers and increase government revenue by à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½520 million per year in the first five years. As can be seen in figure 1, the numbers show that between 1991 and 2001 the retail price of cigarettes increased by about 80% in real terms. This is explained to a large extent by tax increases; over the same period the proportion of tax in the retail price rose from 73% to 80%. 1.2 Definition 1.2.1 External benefit External benefit is the benefit to the third party who is not involved into the activity which causes the cost (Anderton, 2008:96) 1.2.2 External cost External cost is the cost to the third party who is not involved into the activity which causes the cost (Anderton, 2008:96) 1.3 Theory This topic exist the relationship between demand and price which is if price increases, the quantity demanded becomes lower. Furthermore, taxation is a factor of the increase and decrease of demand and supply. Besides, advertising also is an important factor to influence the demand of cigarette. 1.4 Aims This article will tell you the positive and negative externalities of cigarette smoking. Moreover, it offers how effective the government had been done for reducing consumption of cigarette and also the other opinions of government instruments which can control the consumption of tobacco are included. 2. Finding 2.1 External benefit of smoking Nowadays, there is a great deal of data show that cigarette is not good for our human. However, smoking cigarette still has its advantage. According to an article published in 1995 in Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews, the smoking rates of schizophrenics have much higher than people with other mental illnesses. Therefore, smoking cigarette can alleviate symptoms of mental illnesses such as anxiety and schizophrenia. 2.2 External cost of smoking 2.21 Secondhand smoking In a research, passive smoking cause about 600,000 deaths per year all over the world. (ASH 1,2011)Thus, secondhand smoking is a big problem in UK. It is not only passive smoker easier than the smoker to get decease; it is also influence the later generations. According to an article Smoking in Public place (2003) shows that the link between passive smoking and both lung cancer and coronary heart disease, increasing the risk for each by around 25%. Secondhand smoking also does harm to babies and children which with an increased risk of respiratory infections, increased severity of asthma symptoms, more frequent occurrence of chronic coughs, phlegm and wheezing, and increased risk of cot death and glue ear.(ASH1, 2011) 2.3 The policy of UK Government ?2.31 The ban of advertising Advertisement has high influence in propagating. Thus, prohibiting the advertising of cigarette is a useful way to control the consumption of tobacco. The Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act which was enacted in 2003, prohibited virtually all forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, including print media and billboards, and sponsorship of sport was finally forbidden by July 2005. Moreover, as the ASH (2011) said that the UK Government estimated that banning cigarette advertising would lead to the decrease of consumption of around 3%. 2.32 The prohibiting in public place Smoking in public places and workplaces is now banned by law in UK. Except some places which include guest bedrooms in hotels and certain rooms in care homes, hospices and prisons. (ASH, 2011)Other public place and work place must no smoking such as restaurant. One typical example is Pizza Hut restaurants where smoking has no longer been permitted in all the 350 restaurants since early this year (Smoking in public place, 2003) 3. Discussions 3.1 Taxation Raising tobacco prices through increase taxation is a useful means. Smoking always bad for our health and a lot of young people also smoke. Controlling consumption of tobacco by taxation is probably the most effective (and certainly the most cost-effective) means. As we can see in Table2, the tax of cigarette was always increasing from 1990 to 2011.So when the price of tobacco increase, the demand of cigarette follows decrease. According to ASH 3the Treasury earned à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½10.5 billion in revenue from tobacco duties for the financial year 2009-2010 (including VAT) Thus, government can control the consumption of cigarette reducing so that decreases the death of people who died because of smoking. From a data The UK tax paid tobacco market is worth around à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½14 billion. The market is dominated by cigarettes, which represent 93.3% of the total duty paid market(ASH,2011), we can imagine how great extent the government increases the duty of cigarette. The taxation is about 76% of the price of a packet of cigarettes. The price of cigarettes has a major effect on cigarette consumption. Higher tobacco taxes reduce smoking and smoking related sickness people, so the number of smoker will cut down. Some people who have no high income will stop smoking, or never start because of the high cost. 3.2Advertising Advertisement is a very useful way to propagate. Thus, the government in UK is aware enough of this fact and declares martial law of advertising. AS the ASH said that the Government estimated that the ban on tobacco advertising in the UK would lead to a drop in consumption of around 3%, saving approximately 3000 lives in the long term.(ASH,2010)Most conspicuous forms of tobacco advertising and promotion in the UK were banned and all the package of cigarette must be normal not magnificent. All forms of tobacco advertising and promotion are banned in the UK with the exception of limited advertising at the point of sale. This will end when a ban on the display of tobacco products in large shops enters into force from 6 April 2012. Small shops will have until April 2015 to comply with the law.(ASH3, 2011)Moreover, the UK government introduced picture warnings on cigarette packs in October 2008. The picture of package will make smoker feel nausea because the picture is about what result after people smoking such as yellow tooth or black lung. This is also the efficacious means to reduce the consumption of tobacco and the number of smokers. 4. Conclusion 4.1 Summary All in all, smoking has more disadvantages than advantages even only harm and no good. As we all know, teenager smoking is also a problem which must be solved. It is easy to get disease and smokers often live in a short life. So governments try various devices to restrain the consumption of cigarette to resolve these problems. 4.2 Recommendation In order to efficaciously control the consumption of cigarette, government can set up more festival about banning smoking and propagate some preferential policy. For example, when people agree to give up smoking, the person will get corresponding subsidize. 5. Reference Anderton.A(2008) Economics(5th Edition) Harlow Person Education ASH1(2011)[online]Smoking statistics Available at [Accessed at 16/12/2011] ASH2 (2011)[online]Tobacco regulation Available at [Accessed at 16/12/2011] ASH3 (2011)[online]Tobacco economics Available at [Accessed at 16/12/2011] Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. [online]Volume 29, Issue 6. 2005; 1021-1034 Available at[Accessed at 7/12/2011] Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2003) Smoking in public place Available at

Friday, September 20, 2019

Feminist Perspective on the Family

Feminist Perspective on the Family A Woman/s Place Was in the Home: Has Feminism Finished the Family? Government debates and some religious discourse harks back to what Finch (1989) has described as the myth of a golden age of the family. Various studies on the family tend to suggest that in Western societies family forms have differed depending on wider social events such as the Industrial Revolution and also demographically. In England for example, family patterns in rural areas and in poor areas differ from those in more affluent areas. In poorer areas families are more likely to involve wider relationships such as grandparents and aunts and uncles. During the nineteenth century the idea of the nuclear family became the most prevalent. This is what is often referred to as the traditional family and the source of what have been called traditional values. It is this family form that has attracted the most criticism, especially from feminists. Even without a feminist critique there have been widespread experiences of changes in the UK and other Western countries during the last forty years concerning marriage, household, and family forms. These are changes that would have been unimaginable before the Second World War (Giddens, 2001). People wait longer before getting married and more people are less likely to marry than used to be the case. What has been called second wave feminism began in the 1960s. Many of its opponents argue that it is feminism which has led to a drop in the number of marriages, greater divorce rates among those who do marry, and a consequent rise in the number of single parent families. Before the late 1960s having a child out of wedlock was still a source of great social shame but during the closing years of the twentieth century the number women who had children but were not married continued to rise. Figures available for 1997 indicate that at that time this group made up 42% of all lone parent households (Social Trends, 2000). Although feminism has been cited as the cause of such changes, this criticism is based on the view that the â €˜traditional’ family was an eternal form until women challenged this view. This paper will begin with a definition of key concepts. It will then look at the concept and history of the family. It will examine the notion that a woman’s place was in the home until the advent of feminism. It will look at different family forms and then assess whether feminism has brought about the end of traditional ideas of the family. Family Murdock 1949 describes a family in the following way: The family is a social group characterized by common residence, economic co-operation and reproduction. It includes adults of both sexes, at least two of whom maintain a socially approved sexual relationship, and one or more children, own or adopted, of sexually cohabiting adults (Murdock, 1949).[1] Family forms vary across societies but theorists maintain that the most prevalent form is the nuclear family described below. Larger family units are referred to as extended families. Feminism Women have argued for equal rights with men since the 18th Century when Mary Wollstonecraft (1792) wrote her Vindication of the Rights of Women. Other women followed in her stead, the most famous being the Pankhurst sisters and the suffragettes who fought for women’s right to vote (Abbott andWallace, 1997). Modern feminism began in the 1960s with the work of American writer Betty Frieden (1965) and this has come to be known as second wave feminism. Alister McGrath (1993) has written that, Feminism has come to be a significant component of modern western culture. At its heart, feminism is a global movement working towards the emancipation of women. The older term for the movement-womens liberation- expressed the fact that it is at heart a liberation movement directing its efforts toward achieving equality for women in modern society, especially through the removal of obstacles-including beliefs, values, and attitudes- which hinder that process (McGrath, 1993:111). The Concept and History of the Family The family is the primary place of socialization and the place where children are introduced to the norms and values of a given society (Talcott Parsons,1951). Parsons work referred to what has come to be known as the nuclear family. Nuclear families consist of parents and children living together, family members ostensibly provide mutual love and support. It is this support that enables individual family members to contribute to society and lead productive lives (Giddens, 2001). In the nuclear family one of the adults is employed outside the home and there should be an unrestricted sharing of income (Cheal, 1991).Theorists such as Murdock (1949 cited in Giddens, 2001) have argued that traditional concepts of the family are to be found in all societies and that the family is a necessary and central institution in society. Whether one regards traditional notions of the family as being pertinent to all societies depends largely on how the family is defined, certainly it might be argued that the nuclear model is no longer the norm in contemporary society. Willmott and Young (1957) undertook what has come to be regarded as one of the most important studies on the sociology of the family in Britain. The work investigated families and family life in East London during the 1950s. The study was undertaken at a time when housing policies and greater financial rewards meant that when a couple married they were able to set up home on their own. Increased geographical mobility also meant that many young couples lived a good distance from their families. As a consequence of this and the fact that more women were working outside the home it was argued that the division of labour in the home was changing, as more women went out to work so men would take on more domestic chores. Willmott and Young (1957) believed tha t the family would become a more democratic institution where work, finance, and family responsibilities were shared. Willmott and Young maintained that with the passing of time the family would become more symmetrical i.e. that the changing nature of men and women’s roles would mean that their family roles would become interchangeable (Abbott and Wallace, 1997). Feminists challenge this view Walby (1990) maintains that the family is still a site of oppression for women and that this is the place where their roles are perpetuated. Furthermore, feminist writers such as Abbott and Wallace (1997) have argued that the nuclear model of the family is too narrow. They also claim that such a concept neglects the fact that not all family members experience life in the same way, or receive equal measures of support. Goode (1963)argues that social systems such as the family, are powerful agents of control because to some extent their existence is founded on force. Within social systems such as the family this is often unrecognized, because it is hidden it is effective. Gittens (1992) is of the opinion that in modern Britain: Ideals of family relationships have become enshrined in our legal, social, religious and economic systems which, in turn, reinforce the ideology and penalise or ostracise those who transgress it (Gittens, 1992, p.74). The Family and Ideology In pre-industrial society most of the household chores were undertaken by children. There was little distinction between home and work, the private and public spheres, families generally worked the land and they did this together. The rise of industrialization and the growth of the towns brought massive changes to what had constituted the family and family life up until that time. Oakley (1981) maintains that the coming of the factories replaced the family as the unit of production. In 1819 the Factory Act was introduced and this resulted in the growing dependence of children, and also to women’s increased dependence on men and their restriction to the private sphere. During the 19th and early 29th Centuries there was a growing resistance to the employment of married women as wage earners. This was because working women were perceived as threatening to male employment and so there was pressure to keep them at home (Hacker, 1972). The nineteenth century witnessed the embedding of gender roles which were epitomized in men’s idealisation of the feminine. Women were seen to be both physically and emotionally weaker than men and therefore not suited to the same roles. The following is a rationalization for men’s idealistic views of women and why they were confined to the home. No woman can or ought to know very much of the mass of meanness and wickedness and misery that is loose in the wide world. She could not learn it without losing the bloom and freshness which it is her mission in life to preserve (Quoted in Hudson, 1970:53-4). Victorian ideology said that women were created to help men and this became the rationalization for their confinement to the home. To start with this primarily affected the middle classes, as the century progressed, however, the working classes were also subjected to this ideology. Oakley (1981) maintains that this had the effect of locking women into the housewife role, further cementing the growing ideology of gender roles. Murdock (1949 in Giddens, 2001) argued that gender roles are the natural result of the biological differences between men and women. Such differences, he maintained, made the sexual division of labour the most sensible way of organising society. This view became endemic in society and has affected much Government policy. When Margaret Thatcher came to power in 1979 the Conservatives were calling themselves the party of the family. They maintained that people should be discouraged from cohabitation or from homosexuality and supported the patriarchal nuclear famil y where the father was the person to enforce behavioural standards. Even though single parent families, extended families and reconstituted families were becoming more prevalent at the time these were not regarded as the norm or as desirable (Abbott and Wallace, 1997). Barrett and McIntosh (1980) have argued that ideas centred on a man being able to earn enough to support a family benefited the capitalist economy and the working man at the expense of women. They maintain that this idea of a family wage is still embedded in society and has been a major aspect of women’s inequality with men. The idea that a man was entitled to earn a family wage but women were not has meant that women have, (and still do in a number of areas) earn less than men. Furthermore, the low pay which accompanies what is often termed ‘women’s work’ means that women’s choices are restricted and their economic power within marriage has been reduced. Changing Work Patterns Even though there had been widespread resistance towards women working outside the home Oakley (1981) maintains that this began to change after the first World War, and between 1914 and 1950 the number of women working outside the home showed a steady increase. In spite of this their primary role was still seen in terms of being a housewife. Since the 1960s women have been struggling to achieve participation in paid employment which is equal to that of men. This has been the case for women from all walks of life (Abbott and Wallace, 1997). These struggles resulted in the introduction of the Equal Pay Act in 1970 which meant that women were entitled to the same pay as men if they were doing the same job. In 1975 it became illegal under the Sex Discrimination Act to discriminate against women in education, in employment, and in the provision of goods. The European Court demanded a strengthening of the Equal Pay Act in Britain in 1982. This was followed by a further amendment in 1984 wh ich allowed that women were entitled to the same pay as men in their organisations providing they could prove that their work involved the same kinds of decision making and skills as their male counterparts. Women should have equal access and an equal chance for promotion. Some jobs were regarded as outside the confines of the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act e.g. only women could work in a women’s refuge (Haralambos et al 2000). Feminist Criticisms of the Family Since the 1970s and 80s the main sociological focus on families has been concerned with the experiences of women and children, furthermore, the highlighting of these experiences has generated a growth in awareness that the family is an ideological form that does not always work in everyone’s best interests. Feminists have highlighted the fact that for centuries women have been the subordinate sex in society and that this subordination is largely a result of their biology i.e. the fact that they have been born women rather than men. Feminists maintain that there is a disjuncture between women’s experiences of being in a family as wives and mothers and ideologies of domesticity. For a long time many women have felt extremely dissatisfied with the role ascribed to them once they are married and it was this dissatisfaction that Betty Friedan (1965) was seeking to express when she referred to the experience of American housewives in the 1960s as suffering from ‘the pro blem that has no name’. For some women the ideal of family life is seen as desirable, but their experiences within their own families, falls far short of that ideal (Stanley and Wise, 1983). The gender roles that women have been assigned are constructed on the basis of this biological difference rather than such roles being innate (Abbott and Wallace, 1997). Gender roles are socially constructed and reinforced through the family and the education system. This is done through the different ways that authority figures have of relating to boys and girls, and the fact that there is a tendency to give girls dolls and tea sets, and to give boys toy cars and construction sets (Firestone, 1971). However, Connell (1987) has argued that this view tends to ignore the capacity of individuals to accept or reject the social expectations that are embedded in gender roles. Thus Connell maintains that boys and girls may choose elements from each others roles e.g. the tendency of some girls to become involved in competitive sports, and boys dressing in drag when alone. Connell (1987) has said that this may result in males and females building themselves a fantasy life that is in contradic tion to their public actions, thus gender roles can be interchangeable. Feminists have also pointed out that gender socialization is evident in a hidden curriculum in the education system where books that represent males and females in ‘traditional’ roles reinforce the view that men and women have different paths in life. Until the late 1980s girls were less likely than boys to achieve the requisite number of A levels to enter university. In recent years the focus has tended to be on the growing underachievement of boys because girls are matching or exceeding boys across the curriculum and thus there are more women entering higher education. This does not, however, give them much advantage in the job market where they are disadvantaged in comparison with males who have the same qualification levels (Epstein, et al, 1998). Despite these things Moore (2002), maintains that things are changing, men are taking on more domestic responsibility than they were 20 years ago and often have a much greater involvement with their children than in the past. This has gained official recognition through the introduction of parental leave. In the past, although mothers were entitled to maternity leave, fathers did not have paternity leave. Parental leaves allows both parents to legitimate time off, however, unless men have sympathetic employers, this leave is unpaid and so often not taken. Changes within families has also meant (as mentioned earlier) that the structure of the family itself is changing. As it has already been noted, women’s subordination increased with the rise of industrialisation and the separation between public and private spheres (Oakley 1981). The continuing erosion of this distinction over the latter half of the 20th Century has been a significant factor in the changing nature of the family. There are a number of forces at work in the decline of what has been called the traditional family. Feminists have highlighted these changes while at the same time exposing the unequal power relationships that exist within society and within the family (Harding, 1987, Walby, 1986). They relate this inequality to the patriarchal nature of society. Rich (1976) has argued that patriarchy is a social and ideological system where men determine the roles that women should or should not play in society. Oakley (1981 and Pahl (1983)[2] have cited the division of roles, both within the family, and in the wider society, as a major site of oppression for women. Traditionally the man has been seen as the breadwinner once children arrive and this puts the woman at a disadvantage as research has shown that there is a relationship between money, power and inequality (Vogler, C and Pahl, J.1999)[3]. Because the family has been seen as the primary site of socialization (Parsons, 1951), it is also a useful place for social conditioning where obedience to authority lays the foundation for the submissive workforce that capitalism requires. Delphy (1977) has argued that gender differences are socially constructed and they tend to serve the interests of the dominant groups in society. Delphy further contends that women should be treated as a separate class because the categories of man and woman are not biological, but political and economic categories. Therefore women form a class who are exploited by men, and this is particularly evident in the nuclear family. Thus, Delphy writes: While the wage-labourer sells his labour power, the marrie woman gives hers away; exclusivity and non-payment are intimately connected. To supply unpaid labour within the framework of a universal and personal relationship (marriage) constructs primarily a relationship of slavery (Delpy, 1977:15). Marxist feminists argue that while Marxism may give an explanation of exploitation by the capitalist system it does not explain the inequalities between women and men, as Delphy (1977) maintains gender and sexual inequality should be the fundamental categories of feminist analysis. Marxism alone does not explain for example why women should be seen as responsible for household tasks and capitalism could just as easily still profit if men stayed at home The Community Care Act of 1990 has imposed further responsibilities on women in the role of informal carers, this places considerable stress on women’s health, particularly as nowadays many women who have a family also work outside the home. Dalley (1988) argues that much Government’s policy making, particularly the idea of community care is based on outmoded notions of the ideal family, where most married women do not go out to work, and b) it is the woman’s duty to assume the caring role. Under such circumstances it is widely assumed that the caring that women do in the home is a natural part of women’s role within the family even though many more women work than used to be the case. Changing Family Structures Since the Second World War there has been a dramatic rise in women’s participation in the workforce, although a lot of this has been part-time employment. The 1991 Census shows that the workforce was 47% women although there were regional and ethnic variations and single women are more likely to be employed than are married women. This is largely because women’s participation in the labour market is affected by their domestic responsibilities (Abbott and Tyler, 1995). Many women spend time out of the labour market when they have young children and then may work part time while children are at school only returning to full employment when their children are older. Few women have continuous careers as a result of their domestic responsibilities. Although child care arrangements do have an effect on women’s working patterns, lack of proper child care is not the only reason women do not participate more fully in the workplace. For example, while the number of women i n work has continued to rise only a third of single mothers with young children are economically active (HMSO, 1999). This is due to the fact that, despite Government initiatives such as Sure Start Centres, most lone mothers do not have either sufficient extra support to return to the workplace, or can only take low paid work which may leave them worse off than they were on benefits. In addition to this the welfare system was formed on the basis that the traditional nuclear family, with a man at its head, should be the norm. It is not, therefore, set up to deal with the increasing number of single parent households (Moore, 2002). Government continued concentration on the notion of the traditional family, tends to make single parent families appear as deviant, when in fact this type of family has become more prevalent as have other family forms. Gittins (1993) maintains that there are a wide variety of domestic relationships and that although relationships may be universal, the can take an infinite variety of forms. Besides the nuclear family there is the extended family, often a feature of minority ethnic groups. There are also many single parent families, whether through death, divorce or choice. Second marriages that often result in what is known as reconstituted families, e.g. where one or both partners have children from other relationships, are also becoming more prevalent. The last twenty years have also seen a rise in the number of people living together, or cohabiting, without the bonds of marriage. Different family relationships are also more evident due to the different ethnic groupings that now make up the UK (Giddens, 2001). Different attitudes towards those people who are not heterosexual has meant that an increasing number of gay and lesbian men and women now choose to live together as couples, and may or may not have children.[4] According to Hartley-Brewer (1999) contends that the family (as we have known it) is evolving, rather than the emphasis being on mother and father it should be on nurturing parents of whatever sex. It might therefore be argued that the home may soon cease to be the specific place for women and could become the place for dependent children and caregiver, who may not necessarily be a biological parent. Conclusion This assignment has looked at the concept and history of the family and at feminist criticisms. As noted earlier an increasing number of families are matriarchal or matrifocal, this is often the case in Caribbean families. This has generated debates about whether fatherless families are the source of an increasing number of social problems. Dennis and Erdos (1992) maintain that without adult examples of the proper conduct in relationships the children from families with absent fathers will not have the ability to become effective members of a social group. It is further argued that if a boy grows up without a father present then he will struggle to be a successful parent himself. Blankenhorn (1995) has argued that the high divorce rates of Western nations does not mean simply the absence of fathers from the home but the erosion of the idea of fatherhood, and that this will have lethal consequences. Fukuyama (1997) maintains that the roots of the disruption of society and of the tradi tional family can be attributed to the rising numbers of female employment. This, he argues, changes men’s perceptions of women, they now perceive women a being more capble and independent and thus able to care for a child without a man’s help. It is Fukuyama’s (1997) contention that the emancipation of women can lead to the further abdication of responsibility by men. Clearly a number of social and historical forces have contributed to the changing nature of the family. Many of these forces have been highlighted in feminist work, whether or not feminism has brought about the death of the family is a matter of opinion. On the evidence presented above it might be argued that feminism itself was the result of social, historical, and economic processes and it is these processes, rather than feminism, that is changing our view of what constitutes a family. Bibliography Abbott and Wallace, 1997 An Introduction to Sociology: Feminist Perspectives. London, Routledge Abbott and Tyler 1995 Ethnic variation in the female labour force: a research note†in British Journal of Sociology 46 pp 330-353 Allan, Graham and Crow, Graham 2001 Families, Households and Society: Basingstoke: Palgrove Barrett and Mcintosh 1980 â€Å"The family wage: Some problems for socialists and Feminists† Capitlalism and Class 11 pp51-72 Blankenhorn, D 1995 Fatherless America New York, Basic Books Cheal,m D 1991 The Family and the State of Theory Hemel Hempstead, Harvester, Wheatsheaf Connell, R. 1987 Gender and Power: Society, the Person and Sexual Politics Cambridge, Polity Coontz, S, and Henderson, P. eds. 1986. Women’s Work, Men’s Prosperity. London, Verso. Crow, G. and Hardey, M. 1992 â€Å"Diversity and ambiguity among lone-parent households in Modern Britain† in Marsh, C. and Arber, S. eds 1992 Families and Households: Divisions and Change. London, Macmillan. Dalley, G. 1988 Ideologies of caring: Rethinking Community and Collectivism London, Macmillan Delphy, C 1977 The Main Enemy London, Women’s Research and Resource Centre Dennis, N and Erdos, G 1992 Families without Fatherhood London, IEA Health and Welfare Unit Epstein et al 1998 Failing boys: Issues in Gender and Achievement Buckingham, OUP Finch, J 1989 Family Obligartions and Social Change Cambridge, Polity Press Firestone, S. 1971 The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution London, Cape Friedan, B 1965 The Feminist Mystique, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth Fukuyama F. 1997 The End of Order London, Social Market Foundation Giddens, A. 2001 4th edition. Sociology. Cambridge, Polity Press. Gittens, D. 1993 The Family in Question: Changing households and familial ideologies London, Macmillan Goode w. 1963 World Revolution and Family Patterns New York, Free Press Graham, H. 1993 Hardship and Health in Women’s Lives Hemel Hempstead, Harvester/Wheatsheaf Hacker, H. 1972 â€Å"Women as a Minority Group† in Glazer-Malbin and Waehrer eds. 1972. Woman in a Man-Made World. Chicago, Rand-Mcnally Haralambos,M. Holborn, M. and Heald, R.2000. 5th ed. Sociology: Themes and Perspectives. London, Harper Collins. Hartley-Brewer, J. 1999†Gay couple will be legal parents† Guardian 28th October 1999 Hartmann, H. 1981. â€Å"The unhappy marriage of Marxism and feminism: toward a more progressive union† in Sargent, L. ed. 1981 The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: A Debate on Class and Patriarchy. London, Pluto Press HMSO 1999 Social Trends 29 London, HMSO Hudson, K., 1970. The Place of Women in Society. London, Ginn. McGrath, A 1993 Modern Christian Thought, Blackwell, Oxford Moore, S 2002 Social Welfare Alive (3rd ed) Cheltenham, Nelson Thorne Murdock, G. 1949. Social Structure. New York, Macmillan. Oakley, A. 1981. Subject Women. Oxford, Martin Robinson Parsons, T. and Bales, R. 1955. Family, Socialisation, and Interaction Process. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press Parsons, T. 1951 The Social System New York, The Free Press Stanley and Wise 1983 Breaking Out London, Routledge Walby, S 1986 Patriarchy at Work, Cambridge, Polity. Walby,S. 1990. Theorising Patriarchy. Blackwell, Oxford. Walby,S. 1997. Gender Transformations. London, Routledge Willmott and Young 1957 Family and Kinship in East London London, Harmondsworth Wollstonecraft, M 1792 The Disenfranchisement of Women, in Schneir, M (ed.) 1996 The Vintage Book of Historical Feminism, Vintage, London 1 Footnotes [1] Quoted in Haralambos and Holborn, 2000:504 no page given for Murdock quote. [2] Cited in Abbott and Wallace 1997 ibid. [3] Ditto [4] Either through the adoption process, artificial insemination, or an earlier heterosexual relationship

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Internet Laws :: essays research papers

Internet Laws There are a lot of debates dealing with laws concerning the Internet. Privacy and censorship are just two of the main points of argument. While searching through this information, I found it difficult to actually find new laws concerning the Internet. There are many ongoing debates that I am sure will reach legislation. I found the CNN website to be the most help. I used other search engines, such as Google and AllTheWeb, but I mostly got personal websites about their own opinions. I would suggest that someone really researching this subject should take the time and really look through Supreme Court documents and legislation. That way you wouldn’t miss anything. I wasn’t very successful in my searching, but here are the ones I managed to find. In San Francisco, California, Internet filters designed to keep pornography away from children were banned at city libraries despite a federal law mandating them. San Francisco's Board of Supervisors voted unanimously to ban the filters from library computers, a move that could cost the city $20,000 in federal funds. The board left it up to the Library Commission to decide whether to install filtering software in children's areas. The Children's Internet Protection Act, passed in April, requires libraries to install the software by 2003. The $20,000 the city might not get would be a tiny portion of its $50 million annual library budget. There is Legislation under consideration in the United States Congress to combat terrorism will treat low-level computer crimes as terrorist acts and threaten hackers with life imprisonment, according to officials of the civil liberties group Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF). EFF says the Anti-Terrorism Act (ATA) will add low-level computer intrusion (already a crime under other laws) to the list of "federal terrorism offenses," creating penalties of up to life imprisonment. The act will also add broad pre-conviction asset seizure powers and serious criminal threats to those who "materially assist" or "harbor" individuals suspected of causing minimal damage to networked computers.

Mythic Heros: Sinbad The Sailor :: essays research papers

Mythic Heros: Sinbad the Sailor   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When I think about mythic heroes, for many years the first name that came to mind was Sinbad: Sinbad the sailor. In his days as an adventurer, he went on seven fantastic voyages which earned him fame for the rest of his life. Yet, now in retrospect, I no longer consider him to be the great adventurer that I saw him as in my childhood.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  On his seven voyages, Sinbad encountered every obstacle one could possibly think of. He and his crew met up with: a fish so large, many mistook it for an island, an island where rocs (enormous birds (their eggs were often mistaken for buildings)) still lived, cannibals, giants, and even herds of angry elephants. On each and everyone one of his famed voyages, he was shipwrecked, alone, and faced with some hideous danger. On each and everyone, he overcame the odds, destroyed his foes, and returned home with riches beyond the imagination.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As a child, the stories of Sinbad's voyages were wildly entertaining. In each one, there was adventure, danger, money, and the hero always came home in one piece. Now that I look back at the stories, there are some parts of Sinbad's fantastic tales that bother me.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  First of all, Sinbad never set out in search of adventure. These amazing things just seemed to always happen to him. He normally set out as a merchant, carrying goods from one exotic land to another. Yet, on each of these trips, something incredible happened to him and his crew, resulting in a dead crew and a fantastic story for Sinbad the sailor.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Secondly, all of Sinbad's great adventures occurred sequentially. In other words, he went immediately from one adventure to another without so much as a nap in between. This man never had a quiet boat ride in the entire span of time in which his adventures took place.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Another interesting point is the manner in which Sinbad always left and returned to his home port in Baghdad. All seven times, he left with a full crew and carrying the goods of a local merchant. Yet all seven times he returned, he was alone, the crew having died in the early part of the respective adventure. All seven times, he returned without the goods that he was to take to market, but he often returned with new riches from the island where he was stranded (and of course, kept them for himself). This leads me to believe that maybe his crew

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Identification of Bacteria in Wastewater Essay example -- Scientific R

The analytical techniques for direct detection, enumeration, isolation and identification many different types of pathogenic bacteria in wastewater and accompanying sludge require well-trained technicians. Also it's usually are unpredictable, difficult, hugely expensive, costly and time-consuming procedures. The task would be enormous if one contemplates the monitoring of hundreds of pathogens and parasites on a routine basis in water and wastewater treatment plants, receiving waters, soils and others environmental samples (Lucero-Ramirez, 2000 and Bitton, 2005). To avoid these problems, Toze (1997) reported that the indicator microorganisms are indicators of fecal pollution used to determine the relative risk of the possible presences of microbial pathogens. Indicator organisms are also used as models for the behavior of pathogens e.g. to determine the efficiency of treatment processes. In this study the bacterial load of the effluent samples examined in this study was summarized in Table 1. There are no significant differences between geometric means of TBC and TC cell number in all samples collected from STP1, STP2 and STP3. The log10 CFU /100 mL of TC of effluent samples collected from STPs was significantly different from the log10 of FC and enterococci cell number (P ≠¤0.05 as determined by ANOVA). The geometric mean values for the TC ranged from 6.12 to 5.39 log10 CFU /100 mL. Enterococci levels in treated effluent at STP1 were significantly less than STP2 and STP3. According to data collected from STPs under study, STP2 is specific for treated of the domestic sewage coming from medical centers, while STP1 treated the wastewater coming from laboratories that operate on the experiences of pharmaceutical in the educationa... ...tion complies with the WHO guidelines for unrestricted irrigation regarding the FC content (≠¤1000 CFU/100 mL or 3 log10 CFU/100 mL). According to Alcalde et al., (2003) the effluent which has these parameters can be used for unrestricted irrigation of several crops during the entire year without any additional disinfection treatment. This results were accepted by Deportes et al. (1998) who reported that during storage, indicators and pathogenic microorganisms remained either undetectable or at low level. Moreover, survivals of microorganisms that are associated with solids are more than when they are suspended in water (Straub et al., 1992). Works Cited Straub, T. M., Pepper, I. L. and Gerba, C. P. (1992): Persistence of viruses in desert soil amended with anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Journal of Applied Environmental and Microbiology (58), 636–645.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Food and Agriculture Organization Essay

* FAO emblem with its Latin motto, Fiat Panis (â€Å"Let there be bread†) * Organization type – Specialized Agency * Head – Josà © Graziano da Silva (current) * Established – 16 October 1945 in Quebec City, Canada * Headquarters – Rome, Italy * Parent organization – ECOSOC (The world’s economic, social and environmental challenges are ECOSOC’s concern. A founding UN Charter body established in 1946, the Council is the place where such issues are discussed and debated, and policy recommendations issued.) * Members – 191 Member Nations, two associate members and one member organization, the European Union. * Website – The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. It is also a source of knowledge and information, and helps developing countries and countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fishery practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all. FAO’s Goal Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), specialized United Nations agency whose main goal is to eliminate hunger on a world scale. The organization’s mandate is to: * raise levels of nutrition * improve agricultural productivity * better the lives of rural populations * contribute to the growth of the world economy History of FAO * 1943 Representatives from forty-four governments gathered at the Homestead Hotel, Hot Springs, Virginia (United States), from May 18 to June 3, commit themselves to founding a permanent organization for food and agriculture. * 1945 First session of FAO Conference, Quebec City, Canada, establishes FAO as a specialized United Nations agency. * 1962 The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission established to set international food standards becomes operational. * 1976 FAO’s Technical Cooperation Program established to afford greater flexibility in responding to urgent situations. * 1981 The first World Food Day observed on 16 October by more than 150 countries. * 1986 AGROSTAT (now FAOSTAT), the world’s most comprehensive source of agricultural information and statistics, becomes operational. * 1994 * Special Program for Food Security (SPFS)   * Emergency Prevention System for Trans boundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) * 1996 FAO hosts 186 Heads of State or Government and other high officials at World Food Summit in November to discuss and combat world hunger. * 1997 FAO launches campaign against hunger initiative TeleFood. TeleFood ’97 reaches a global audience of 500 million. * 2006 FAO unveils its high-tech Crisis Management Centre to fight bird flu and other animal health or food safety emergencies. The service monitors disease outbreaks and dispatches experts to any hot spot in the world in less than 48 hours. Representatives of 96 FAO member countries at the International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, in Brazil, make a joint declaration recognizing the role of agrarian reform and rural development for sustainable development. * 2008 FAO holds a high-level conference on 3–5 June on the impact of climate change and the bio fuel boom on food security and food prices. Attended by 43 heads of state and 100 government ministers, the conference adopted a resolution to increase assistance and investment in developing world agriculture. * 2009 As the number of hungry reached 1.02 billion, FAO holds a World Summit on Food Security on 16-18 November to inject new urgency into the fight against hunger. Sixty heads of state and government and 192 ministers unanimously adopt a declaration pledging renewed commitment to eradicate hunger from the Earth at the earliest date * 2011 In a historic victory of veterinary science, FAO and OIE announced that thanks to a decades-long international cooperative effort, the fatal cattle disease known as rinderpest had successfully been eradicated in the wild. In July, FAO declared a state of famine in two regions of Somalia and appealed for US$120 million for response to the drought across the Horn of Africa. FAO Member countries elected Josà © Graziano da Silva of Brazil as Director-General, to take office in January 2012. Structure and Finance 1. Members – An intergovernmental organization, FAO has 191 Member Nations as of 2008, two associate members and one member organization, the European Union. 2. Governance – Representatives of members meet at the biennial FAO Conference to review global governance policy issues and international frameworks, as well as to evaluate work carried out and to approve the budget for the next biennium. The Conference elects Council Members, to serve three-year rotating terms to carry out executive oversight of program and budgetary activities. The Conference also elects a Director-General to a four year term of office, renewable once. The current Director-General, Josà © Graziano da Silva, assumed his functions on 1 January 2012 for a term which expires on 31 July 2015. 3. Departments FAO is composed of eight departments: Administration and Finance, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Economic and Social Development, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Forestry, Knowledge and Communication, Natural Resource Management and Technical Cooperation. 4. Offices Besides its headquarters in Rome, FAO is present in over 130 countries. The decentralized network includes five regional offices, 11 sub regional offices, two multidisciplinary teams, 74 fully fledged country offices (excluding those hosted in regional and sub regional offices), eight offices with technical officers/FAO Representatives, and 36 countries covered through multiple accreditation. In addition, the Organization maintains five liaison offices and four information offices in developed countries. 5. Programs and projects In 2010, FAO implemented programs and projects with a total value of US$903 million. About four percent are funded by assessed contributions through the FAO Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) and the Special Program for Food Security (SPFS). The remaining 96 percent are funded from voluntary contributions, through the Government Cooperative Program (44 percent), Unilateral Trust Fund (UTF) (six percent), and other forms of Trust Funds (46 percent) that include UN Joint Programs. * Right to Food Guidelines * Response to food crisis * FAO–EU partnership * Food security programs * Emergency response * Early warning of food emergencies * Integrated pest management * Trans boundary pests and diseases * International Plant Protection Convention * Global Partnership Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building * Codex Alimentarius 6. Funding and expenditure FAO’s overall program of work is funded by assessed and voluntary contributions. The assessed contributions are member countries’ contributions, set at the biennial FAO Conference. The FAO regular budget for the 2010-2011 bienniums is US$1 billion. The voluntary contributions provided by members and other partners support technical and emergency (including rehabilitation) assistance to governments, as well as direct support to FAO’s core work. The voluntary contributions are expected to exceed US$1.2 billion in 2010-11. Budget FAO’s Regular Program budget is funded by its members, through contributions set at the FAO Conference. This budget covers core technical work, cooperation and partnerships including the Technical Cooperation Program, knowledge exchange, policy and advocacy, direction and administration, governance and security. This overall budget covers core technical work, cooperation and partnerships, leading to Food and Agriculture Outcomes by 71%; Core Functions by 11%; the Country Office Network by 5%; Capital and Security Expenditure by 2%; Administration by 6%; and Technical and Cooperation Program by 5%. FAO’s activities comprise four main areas: * Putting information within reach. FAO serves as a knowledge network. We use the expertise of our staff – agronomists, foresters, fisheries and livestock specialists, nutritionists, social scientists, economists, statisticians and other professionals – to collect, analyze and disseminate data that aid development. A million times a month, someone visits the FAO Internet site to consult a technical document or read about our work with farmers. We also publish hundreds of newsletters, reports and books, distribute several magazines, create numerous CD-ROMS and host dozens of electronic forum. * Sharing policy expertise. FAO lends its years of experience to member countries in devising agricultural policy, supporting planning, drafting effective legislation and creating national strategies to achieve rural development and hunger alleviation goals. * Providing a meeting place for nations. On any given day, dozens of policy-makers and experts from around the globe convene at headquarters or in our field offices to forge agreements on major food and agriculture issues. As a neutral forum, FAO provides the setting where rich and poor nations can come together to build common understanding. * Bringing knowledge to the field. Our breadth of knowledge is put to the test in thousands of field projects throughout the world. FAO mobilizes and manages millions of dollars provided by industrialized countries, development banks and other sources to make sure the projects achieve their goals. FAO provides the technical know-how and in a few cases is a limited source of funds. In crisis situations, we work side-by-side with the World Food Program and other humanitarian agencies to protect rural livelihoods and help people rebuild their lives.