Friday, December 27, 2019

Starbucks Brand Identity - 1943 Words

What are the main ways a high-street retailer represents their company to the public? Using one prominent store/retail chain that you are familiar with, describe how each aspect contributes to their brand and identity. Founded in the streets of Seattle, Washington during the 1970’s. Howard Schultz certainly never anticipated creating a brand that has become the largest coffeehouse company in the world. Starbucks has dominated the world with its aromatic and fine quality coffee beans. It is not just a mere coffee house, it is a brand, a lifestyle, a culture and most evidently, it is an iconic figure, an identity. (Koehn 2002) This essay shall introduce Starbucks as a renowned brand in contemporary society, its origins as a coffee†¦show more content†¦(Isobe 2012) Phillips and Rippin (2010) emailed Starbucks to inquire why a siren was chosen as their company’s logo, the swift reply from Starbucks described that the siren is a creature of strength and power. â€Å"Its stylized and anodyne nature, however, obscures the richness of mermaid tradition and iconography in general, and of two-tailed siren in particular.† (Phillip and Ripping 2010, p. 484) Mermaids are mythological creatures that have the power to seduce. This resembles the power of Starbucks to seduce their customers with their high quality coffee. The mermaid’s beauty is an expression of exoticism that is associated to the pleasure and addiction that coffee carries. Moreover a mermaid will beguile and draw the innocent into a world that is away from duties and frustration. This resembles Starbucks, a place that is away from work and home and is filled with excitement and anticipation. (Phillips and Rippin 2010) The siren logo has evolved numerous of times over the last four decades. When Starbucks first started, the two-tailed siren was fully topless and her double tail was fully visible as she was holding it up high. The logo was based on a Norse cut wood that had the words ‘Starbucks’, ‘Coffee’, ‘Tea’ and ‘Spices’ encircled. In the year 1987, Schultz officially merged his company I1 Giornale with Starbucks. To symbolize this melding theShow MoreRelatedEssay about Brand Identity Planning of Starbucks Coffee Chain1940 Words   |  8 PagesBrand Identity Planning of Starbucks Coffee Chain The starbucks brand has been credited with changing the way Americans drink coffee, the way they perceive it how much they are willing to pay for it. It has been a dream run for starbucks coffee once its brand identity became well known, understood liked. But the process of building a successful brand is slow, tedious, resource consuming risky. I have in the following report outlined the starbucks branding strategy on the basis of theRead MoreThe Most Important Starbucks Marketing Strategy951 Words   |  4 PagesThe most important Starbucks’ marketing strategy is culture and experience strategy, supplying unique experience and sharing coffee culture. Starbucks thought 90% of feelings to coffee came from smell while 10% are from taste. So, Starbucks focused on aroma of its coffee shop, making sure that costumers would be attracted by coffee aroma once they came in any shops. That’s why no smoking there and no perfume to Starbucks employees. In this case, desire fo r coffee would be conditioned response fromRead MoreStarbucks Coffee s Vision Of Starbucks1282 Words   |  6 PagesGordon Bowker established Starbucks Coffee Company in 1971, their vision of Starbucks was that of a local business specialising in â€Å"selling fresh roasted whole beans in ...specialty stores.† (Darguste et al., 2006 p.655). Fearing commoditization of the brand, the founders were opposed to the idea of broadening the appeal of Starbucks coffee. Howard Schultz, a marketer who eventually acquired Starbucks in 1987, made selling brewed coffee to a wider market the bedrock of Starbucks (Darguste et al., 2006Read MoreStarbucks Brand1422 Words   |  6 PagesStarbucks Corporation: Managing a High Growth Brand 1 One of the main keys for success for Starbucks in building the brand is their focus on quality, starting by the quality of the whole bean, the freshly roasted gourmet beans, its packaging, transportation, until its brewing. This has served as a main differentiator between Starbucks and other brands. Starbucks has succeeded to position itself as a unique quality coffee provider. Starbucks also managed to build its brand with the perceptionRead MoreStarbucks Corporation, The Mission And Vision Statement1433 Words   |  6 Pages Abstract This paper discussed about the Starbucks Corporation, the Mission and Vision statement of the Starbucks Corporation and the strategies formulated and implemented by Starbucks in maintaining competitive edge over its competitors. It also discussed about problems recently faced by Starbucks and recommendations to solve the problems and strategies for potential development of Starbucks in near future. Introduction Starbucks Corporation is a globalized coffee company operatingRead MoreStarbucks Coffee: Standardization and Adaptation Strategy Essay1598 Words   |  7 PagesStarbucks Coffee: Standardization and Adaptation Strategy Introduction Starbucks’ Business Concept and History When academics Jerry Baldwin, Zev Siegel, and Gordon Bowker established Starbucks Coffee Company in 1971, their vision of Starbucks was that of a local business specialising in â€Å"selling fresh roasted whole beans in ...specialty stores.† (Darguste et al., 2006 p.655). Fearing commoditization of the brand, the founders were opposed to the idea of broadening the appeal of StarbucksRead MoreStarbucks 1996 Case Study Essay1194 Words   |  5 PagesStarbucks 1996 Case Background: By 1996, Howard Schultz, Chairman and CEO of Starbucks Corporation had firmly established a leadership position in the specialty coffee industry. By the end of fiscal 1996 Starbucks employed more than 20,000 people and encompassed over 1,000 retail locations in 32 markets throughout North America as well as two new stores in Tokyo, Japan. With such rapid growth and an ongoing evaluation of new opportunities within domestic and international retail marketsRead MoreMarketing Strategy And Pr Campaign999 Words   |  4 PagesDiscussion Marketing strategy and PR Campaign Research Question 1 asks were the recent Starbucks Public Relations campaigns effective at creating buzz for the company. Survey Questions 1 and 6 gave the consumer a chance to provide information on social media sites their most active on and also their awareness on Public Relations campaigns Starbucks have featured over the recent years. While the research shows that Facebook had the most active participants 70.89% of all the social media sites featuresRead MoreStarbucks Marketing Case Study1367 Words   |  6 PagesManagement 03/10/2012 Case Study 7 Pg. 320-324 Starbucks 1.) What is Starbucks’ Product? They have a wide variety of different products. Their main product that they are well known for is their line of premium coffee products. They offer more than 30 blends and single origin coffees, hand crafted espresso and blended beverages, Tazo teas, a line of bottled frappuccino coffee drinks and Starbucks dubbleshot. They also offer an exclusive line of Starbucks Barista home espresso machines, coffee brewersRead MoreStarbucks : A Important Chain Of Success1110 Words   |  5 PagesBesides that, Starbuck realize that the element of human is a very important chain in success in the industry. But they are not start with the top of the human resource but from the bottom one. That is why they have a lot of places to educate for the new employees. According to many survey and research, Starbucks is one of business place have the best customer service. Every time I come to Starbucks, the employees there behave very friendly and helpful. They tried to serve customers with the best

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Human And Animals By Lewis Carroll 1865 - 960 Words

Have you ever tried to know how people or even the animals thinking. Both, human and animals can be very talents have a different way of thinking.† Alice in Wonderland† the novel was written by Lewis Carroll 1865 presented to his readers set of themes. In his fancy novel. His desire is to help the children to know how they are doing in their community and how to keep a relationship .He presented the exciting moment of Alice adventures that includes meeting with intelligent animals who can talk and discuss things and how Alice respects strangers animals. Alice Advenure themes are Intelligent, behavior and adventures. In a magical world you can find many magical and strangers things such as intelligent animals. It is indeed a wonderful thing to see and hear an animal thinking and posing ideas or explaining a particular topic to solve such problems or issues. Intelligent mean best thought to understand knowledge, emotions,memories,plans, creativity and problems solving.Being in a wonderland in one such Alice is in, you can see animals Intelligent. For instance, the mouse is smart because he can speak English. It argus with Alice about cats and dogs. He says â€Å"Would you like cats if you were me?(page 19 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ I’ll tell you my history and you will understand why it is hate cats and dogs†.(19). This attempt from himto examine Alice fellings.Inddition, he talks a bout polatic topics when he says â€Å"William con querer whose cause was favoured by the pope†. (page33). Also,Show MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Book Alice s Adventures 1293 Words   |  6 Page sAlice’s Adventures in Wonderland is a novel by Charles Dodgson, better known under the pseudonym of Lewis Carroll to his readers. Published in 1865, the novel centers around a young girl’s lively adventures in a fantastical dream world. She falls into this world after she sees a rabbit with a pocket watch and waistcoat running through her yard and then follows him down a rabbit hole. Although marketed as a children’s story, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland has remained a mainstay with childrenRead MoreWhy Authors Use Personification : An Originator Or Creator Of A Work1476 Words   |  6 Pagesto express an idea or opinion. Writers have the ability to create characters in any way that seems fit to them and helps them best fulfill the roles needed to satisfy their vision of their work. Human nature drives authors to ascribe attributes and characteristics that they best see fit to objects, animals, and people in order to prove their point. Authors are able to manipulate characters in order to portray what they want them to. In order to show that this is true, four different stories will beRead MoreLord Of The Hat And Alice s Adventures3646 Words   |  15 Pagesdictionary, was first used over 30,000 years ago in prehistoric works of art and within various forms of mythology. These art forms and fictional creatures utilize anthropomorphism, a sub-category to personification that deals exclusively with human-like animals. Later in the 1900’s, anthropomorphism became a common practice within children’s stories such as The Cat in the Hat and Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. During its course, personification has become a part of everyday language typically whileRead MoreUse of Food in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll2931 Words   |  12 Pagesplace within every culture (Katz 197-8). It was Eve’s lusty bite into an apple that caused, according to Christian belief, the Fall and br ought evil into the world of men. Other beliefs demanded religious offerings – be it food, valuables, or even human sacrifices – to appease the gods. An equivalent myth to the Land of Plenty, the Land of Milk and Honey, can be tracked down in paintings, poems and literary works originated in almost all parts of the planet. From Homer’s great feasts in The IliadRead MoreThe Fantasy Story2215 Words   |  9 Pagesfrom the basic kinds of literature, they invented fantasy. So how did it all start? Well, there are lots of ideas about that. I#8217;m the one who agrees with theory that the very beginning was #8220;Alice in Wonderland#8221; written by Lewis Carroll in 1865. We may laugh that it is on the same bookshelf as #8220;Winnie the Pooh#8221; or #8220;Peter Pan#8221; and many more. It#8217;s a fact that these works were written for children but they had this thing, some kind of new idea, concept thatRead MoreChildrens Literature13219 Words   |  53 Pagesby child or adolescent authors, such as Daisy Ashfords The Young Visiters(1919) or Anne Franks Het Achterhuis (1947; The Diary of a Young Girl, 1952), are exceptions to the rule. Many famous childrens authors, such as Louisa May Alcott and Lewis Carroll, produced family magazines as children, and bits of their juvenilia were reworked into published childrens books. More often, childrens books result from the collaboration or direct inspiration of a specific child or group of children with anRead MoreMark Twain3000 Words   |  12 Pagesliterature. I picked this topic because I find Twain’s personality very interesting. He is best known as the author of the Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn but not everyone knows his whole life story. Many of Mark Twain’s humorous tales of human nature remain as standard texts in most of high school and college literature classes. He is still well-read and obviously he was a tremendously popular figure and a celebrated speaker in his own days. Mark Twain is a unique person for many reasonsRead MoreSolution Manual, Test Bank and Instructor Manuals34836 Words   |  140 PagesG. Engel (IM) A People and a Nation A History of the United States, Brief Edition, Volume I, 9th Edition_Mary Beth Norton, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, Howard P. Chudacoff, A People and a Nation A History of the United States, Volume II Since 1865, 9th Edition_Mary Beth Norton, Carol Sheriff, David W. Blight, Howard P. Chudacoff, Fredrik A Small Scale Approach to Organic Laboratory Techniques, 3rd Edition _Donald L. Pavia, Gary M. Lampman, George S. Kriz, Randall G. Engel (IM) A TextbookRead MoreEbooks Solution Manuals and Test Banks for Text Books19223 Words   |  77 PagesIntegrated Marketing Communications Perspective by Belch 8 Advertising and Promotion An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective by Belch 8 Advertising by Moriarty, Mitchell, Wells 8 Test Bank Aircraft Control and Simulation by Stevens, Lewis 2 Instructor’s Manual Aircraft Structures for Engineering Students by T.H.G Megson 4 Solution Manual Algebra and Trigonometry by Robert F. Blitzer 4 Solution Manual Algebra and Trigonometry by Robert F. Blitzer 4 Test Bank Alternative Energy SystemRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesCentury †¢ Jose C. Moya and Adam McKeown 9 †¢ 2 Twentieth-Century Urbanization: In Search of an Urban Paradigm for an Urban World †¢ Howard Spodek 53 3 Women in the Twentieth-Century World Bonnie G. Smith 83 4 The Gendering of Human Rights in the International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century †¢ Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence †¢ John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Gender Issues And Feminism Theories Samples †

Question: Discuss about the Gender Issues And Feminism Theories. Answer: Introduction: Published in the year of 1985, The Handmaids Tale is regarded as one of the most recognized literary works of the Canadian author, Margaret Atwood (Dvorak, 2016). Since the most significant theme of the novel is the subjugation of women, it is almost impossible to read the novel without referring to the gender issues and feminism theories which are integral to the theme of the novel. Gender Studies: A Literary Theory of Criticism: Gender Studies is an integral theory of literary criticism which critically analyses and evaluates the presentation of masculine, feminine as well as queer (third) gendered people in the literary creation. Ideologically speaking, most of the literary authors have rendered voice to the male perspective, and have successfully suppressed the other perspective rightfully belonging to the women and the members of the LGBT community. The Gender Studies, takes into careful consideration, how the other voice has been coerced into silence for ages, and how this has led to the subjugation and denial of rights of the weaker sex. Thus, this form of literary criticism challenges and interrogates the validity of normative definition of gender and sexual identity, and reinforces the importance of canonical inclusion of the female authors in literary studies. Feminist Gender Theory: An Integral Branch of Gender Studies: The Feminist Literary Criticism intends to challenge the ideological representation of women in accordance with the sexual identity they are born with, in different literary articles, and examines how women are conditioned and socialized to participate in their own subjugation by men. An important feminist critic, Judith Butler considered gender as nothing more than a human and social construct that has been enacted by the continual repetition of social performance, as seen in real life as well as portrayed in literary creations. The feminist literary critics such as Simone de Beauvoir, Helene Cixous, and Julia Kristeva, examine and discuss the gaps, silences and spaces inherently present within the language or symbol system of a culture in which there should be a space for a womens language, highly distinguishable from the normative male-dominated discourse. This literary theory critiques male dominance, female subjugation and challenges the validity of social roles assigned to peop le, on the basis of the sexual identity they are born with. Feminism: The Handmaids Tale: There can be no point stating the fact that the novel The Handmaids Tale is not merely a story about women, but is essentially a novel with a strong feminist propaganda. The very name of the protagonist, Offred, which literally means Of Fred, signifying the name of the commander she belongs to, supports the theme of social objectification of women in the novel. In the novel, she portrays the miserable lives of the handmaids whose very identity gets subsumed by the males who exercise sexual control over them (Campbell, 2016). The women are no longer treated as separate living entities, enjoying rights of freedom, but are rather objectified and treated as the property of the master, as evident in their names- Offred, Ofglen and Ofwarren. The novel clearly shows how Gilead most ruthlessly tries to divide women based on their reproductive abilities, as the fertile females are being assigned to become the handmaids, while the ardent feminists like Offreds mother and aunt are referred to a s the unwoman (Timonen, 2015). Queer Theory: The Handmaids Tale: The patriarchal regime suppresses the voice of the gay and homosexual characters as well. The novel shows how Offred and Ofglen, while returning back to home, witnesses the hanging of a man who was A priest, a doctor and a gay man. His greatest and perhaps the only sin must have been his identification as a gay. Similarly, Moira who prefers to dress herself like men, and exhibits strong lesbian proclivities find herself shut up in a women-only enclave' - which men run for their own pleasure (Donahue, 2016). At the same time, when women refuse to act in accordance with the sexual roles assigned to them, they are punished. As Ofglen turns out to be a rebellious, gender traitor, she receives the harshest punishment. She finds her lover hanged, though she is kept alive, as she herself is capable of bearing children (Fitch, 2015). The incident clearly shows how women are made subservient to the needs of the men, and are punished or spared as per their ability to satisfy the parochial need s of a male-dominated social-set up. The individual identity of the other sexes has been totally denied, and conforming to the male-centred ideology is the only way to survive. How are Gender Roles Defined in The Handmaids Tale: The value and importance of the women in the novel, largely relies on their fertility and reproductive ability. The handmaids are expected to deliver children for the infertile wives of the commanders, failing to do which, they are identified as the unwoman. It clearly shows a society where the women are deemed as nothing more than the sex slaves, whose sexual identity are defined or degraded based on their ability to fulfil the traditional gender roles (Timonen, 2015). The novel draws a horrific picture of sexual enslavement in the lines : Women kneeling, sucking penises or guns, women tied up or chained or with dog collars around their necks, women hanging from trees, or upside-down, naked, with their legs held apart, women being raped, beaten up, killed . Race, Class and Gender: The Handmaids Tale: The Handmaids Tale is a dystopian novel that explores the theme of white feminism, and focuses less on the women of colour. Though Atwood herself has stated in an interview that the novel is inspired by the highly oppressive system of the American slavery, it does not refer to the atrocities inflicted on the black characters, such as Martha. The black denizens, or the people of colour have been sidelined in the narrative, and their stories are left unexplored. The reader finds Offred enduring domestic slavery and forced sexhardships that are exactly the same as experienced by a much higher number of non-white women throughout history, and in various parts of the world. Yet, despite the clear parallels to the oppression of African Americans in the United States, the novel does not portray black female slave experience (Campbell, 2016). References: Campbell, L. (2016). Feminist History in Canada: New Essays on Women, Gender, Work, and Nation, edited by Catherine Carstairs and Nancy Janovicek. Campbell, L. (2016). Feminist History in Canada: New Essays on Women, Gender, Work, and Nation, edited by Catherine Carstairs and Nancy Janovicek. Donahue, D. (2016). Unruly Women: Performance, Penitence, and Punishment in Early Modern Spain by Margaret E. Boyle. Dvorak, M. (2016).Lire Margaret Atwood: the handmaid's tale. Presses universitaires de Rennes. Fitch, D. (2015).From The Handmaids Tale to Bumped: Dystopian Fiction and American Womens Reproductive Rights(Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University). Timonen, J. (2015). Women and Women: Use of Women Types as Rhetorical Techniques in Atwoods Handmaids Tale and Teppers Gate to Womens Country. Timonen, J. (2015). Women and Women: Use of Women Types as Rhetorical Techniques in Atwoods Handmaids Tale and Teppers Gate to Womens Country. Wilson, S. R. (Ed.). (2014).Women's Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Unhealthy Hospital Case Study Essay Example

Unhealthy Hospital Case Study Essay Blake Memorial Hospital in Marksville recently hired Bruce Reid as their new CEO. The hospital and its clinics are not generating enough income. The hospital’s costs is rising, the quality of care is declining and is not generating enough revenue to cover the expenses. Bruce Reid was given a $70 million budget to improve the financial health of Blake Memorial and improve the quality of healthcare services. He was allowed only less than a week to finalize the budget and present it to the board members. The most difficult issue Mr. Reid had to address was the losses being incurred by the hospital’s six off-site clinics. If he decides to close the clinics then that would help with preventing the loss of incomes. However, the hospital had a responsibility to serve the uninsured patients in the community in those clinics. Closing the clinics would also anger the city Mayor who supported the hospital when it first decided to open them. The Mayor even threatened to have Blake Memorial’s tax records reviewed if the clinics are closed. In this situation Bruce Reid needs to utilize his strategic management skills to come with a solution to the daunting problem at hand. Bruce Reid needs to convince the board members that the clinics needs to stay open and serve the low income population in the community. At the same time he needs to come up with a plan to make the clinics more profitable for Blake Memorial. The best strategic plan is to present a plan that is long range and focuses in the budget for the next few years. Currently the offsite clinics are losing money and they are also the cause of the funds being diverted away from the hospital’s in-house services. Te best option for Mr. Reid is to start with making a plan for the short term problems such as the problems with the clinics. We will write a custom essay sample on Unhealthy Hospital Case Study specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Unhealthy Hospital Case Study specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Unhealthy Hospital Case Study specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer He should invest some of the money from the budget and upgrade the clinics. By upgrading the clinics the members of the community will feel more confident to acquire service from those clinics for their health care issues instead of going to other clinics in town. It will attract more low income patients as well as paying patients who help generate income for the hospital. A portion of the budget should be invested in technology that help determine the eligibility of the patient’s insurance and process the billing to ensure payment. In  order to attract privately insured patients the clinics needs to improve the quality of care and become more efficient in their services. Finally, he should move the hospital’s outpatient services to the clinics so it helps generate more income and also allows the hospital to provide better efficient and quality in-patient services. This move will also help increase the inpatient referrals to the hospitals from the clinics and Blake Memorial will be able to create a healthcare network of their own, a first in the community of Marksville. It is also important for Bruce Reid to create a good relationship with all the internal and external stakeholders on Blake Memorial. One such stakeholder is Commissioner of Health Services of Marksville, Clara Bryant. Also Dr, Susan Russell who is the director of clinics if Blake Memorial. Both of these women want to promote the clinics and improve the services to the low income families of the community. Keeping the clinics open will further help Blake Memorial to campaign for more funding from the community with the help of these women and the Mayor of Marksville.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Japanese Gardens Essays - Landscape, Japanese Garden,

Japanese Gardens Japanese Gardens The role of gardens play a much more important role in Japan than here in the United States. This is due primarily to the fact the Japanese garden embodies native values, cultural beliefs and religious principles. Perhaps this is why there is no one prototype for the Japanese garden, just as there is no one native philosophy or aesthetic. In this way, similar to other forms of Japanese art, landscape design is constantly evolving due to exposure to outside influences, mainly Chinese, that effect not only changing aesthetic tastes but also the values of patrons. In observing a Japanese garden, it is important to remember that the line between the garden and the landscape that surrounds it is not separate. Instead, the two are forever merged, serving as the total embodiment of the one another. Every aspect of the landscape is in itself a garden. Also when observing the garden, the visitor is not supposed to distinguish the garden from its architecture. Gardens in Japan incorporate both natural and artificial elements, therefor uniting nature and architecture into one entity. Japanese gardens also express the ultimate connection between humankind and nature, for these gardens are not only decorative, but are a clear expression of Japanese culture. Although this extremely close connection of the individual with nature, the basic principle of Japanese gardens, has remained the constant throughout its history, the ways in which this principle has come to be expressed has undergone many great changes. Perhaps the most notable occurred in the very distinct periods in Japanese history that popularized unique forms of garden styleHeian (781-1185), and the Kamakura (1186-1393). Resulting from these two golden ages of Japanese history came the stroll garden from the former period and the Zen garden from the later. As we shall see, the composition of these gardens where remarkably effected by the norms of architecture and the ideals of popular religion in these eras. Therefor, in understanding each garden style in its context, it essential to also take into account the social, historical, and theological elements as well as the main stylist differences. Japanese aristocrats from at least mid-eighth century customarily had gardens near their homes. During the Heian period a somewhat standard type of garden evolved in accordance with the Shinden type of courtier mansion (Bring and Wayembergh, p. 28-29). Characteristic of the Heian period was its extremely rigid class stratification; life for the farmers, merchants and artisans consisted of very simplified dwellings in comparison to those of members of the aristocracy. The architecture norm for aristocratic homes was in the Shinden-zurkuri style, which was clearly based on the principle that the individual parts of the building should be merged as much as possible into the garden (Yoshida, p.12). The main building, named the Shinden, represented the area reserved for the master himself, and always opened up to the south side of the garden. There were corridors, or tai-no-ya, connecting the Shinden to the rest of the buildings in the complex. There corridors created an enclosure which i s where a lake would be placed and where the stroll garden was erected. Kinkakuji, also known as the Golden Pavilion (1394), serves as an example of this Shinden type. The site in northern Kyoto was developed as a large retirement estate by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358-1409) beginning in 1394. The pavilion itself was sited the edge of a sprawling palace complex that no longer exists today. This was intended as proof that the warrior shogunate could contribute to the cultural and aesthetic life of the land to an extent equal to that of the imperial aristocracy. It has been recorded that the actual emperor of Japan visited Kinkakuji in 1408, the first time an emperor had ever stayed with a person that was not a member of the imperial court. The shogun died the year after. After his death the palace was turned over to the Rinzai sect of Zen Buddhism and it has remained under its control ever since. The Golden Pavilion is a three-story viewing and pleasure pavilion constructed on the edge of a pons as the focal point to a much larger garden on the grounds of the Rokuoni Temple. The pavilion itself is based on

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Streets of London (by Frank Mc Tell) essays

Streets of London (by Frank Mc Tell) essays Streets of London (by Ralph Mc Tell) How to explain the songs popularity Ralph Mc Tells song Streets of London is about the everyday poverty which we, the healthy and wealthy part of our society, dont seem to recognize. The song tells the story of an old, impecunious man who used to be a successful seaman, a hero. In the past, the old man was respected and admired by the society, but in the same way his medal ribbons fade, the societys memory of the former hero fades. Ralph Mc Tell is able to make us feel guilty and responsible when listening to his song as he sings about a man who was once a decent, hard working person like most of us are. We can see ourselves in the old mans wretched position and that makes us feel frightened and pensive. Most people think that poverty only exists in Third World Countries, where there is not enough to eat and the water is polluted but Ralph Mc Tell doesnt sing about the enormous poverty of millions of people in Africa or Asia, he sings about the (individual) poverty we can find in our neighbourhood and in our own family. He makes us aware of the seriousness of poverty and due to the fact that each one of us could end like the old man in the song, we suddenly worry about the poverty described by Ralph Mc Tell. The song blames us for ignoring the lonely and poverty- stricken persons who live in our city, village or vicinity (let me take you by the hand and lead you through the streets of London). An other reason for the songs immense popularity is, in my eyes, that Ralph Mc Tell uses many symbols in his song (yesterdays papers telling yesterdays news, looking at the world over the rim of his teacup). Only by analysing the song very carefully, we can really understand what it tries to tell us. We realise that the persons mentioned in the song do not have any responsibility for thei...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Rape of women as a weapon of war Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Rape of women as a weapon of war - Essay Example It has been misinterpreted as a sex act, but for the victim, it is far from being erotic, sensual or pleasurable. It entails more of aggression and fear in the guise of passion. (Rosen para. 8 Rape has been widespread among warring forces throughout Africa, Southern Europe, and parts of Asia. These include conflicts in Darfur, Somalia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Peru, Uganda, C d parts of Asiaovina, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Cambodia, ngo, rnment troops wal troops. During the day, they carry heavy materisyprus, East Timor, Haiti, Liberia, Peru and Uganda. (Rosen para. 7 Why is rape being used as a weapon? A probable and major reason for this perhaps is because the rapists are trying to undermine or obliterate enemy communities through sexual violence. It is also surmised that rape is a form of genocide. In Bosnia, the Serbian camps are attempting to make it a Serbian state by impregnating Muslim mothers with Serb babies. More than 40,000 Muslim women are estimated to have been raped, and those who were impregnated were forced to bear the child. (Clifford and Ntiricya pg. 1; Robson para. 9; Rosen, para. 30 Although the issue has only been brought up recently, the raping of women has been around since the ancient times. In the Old Testament, there are accounts of women being raped and kidnapped by conquering tribes, and they are usually forced to marry their captors to survive. Civil War general William Tecumseh Sherman pioneered total war in 1846. He believed that conflict should not only involve recognized combatants but the enemy’s entire society as well, from its natural resources to other aspects of their civilian life. (Rosen, para. 4,

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Term paper For economic's The Business Cycle Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

For economic's The Business Cycle - Term Paper Example Policy makers can determine business cycles by observing work productivity gains. This economic factor refers to output per given worker. Increasing work productivity gain has a negative relationship inflation rate. If work productivity per worker goes up there is reduction in production cost that ultimately results into lower prices of goods and services and decreased inflation rate. Despite the above economic leading indicators, investors have relied heavily on stock market to determine the trends in business cycle. It has been observed for so long that when there is decline in the stock market, the economy follows suit. However, less information is available on whether stock markets may result to better or worse performance of economy. This is an area that needs further research to establish the relationship between the stock market and business cycle or economy. There have been arguments that stock market has no direct effect on the economy as a whole. The stock market only acts as mirror that corrects beliefs of people about what may happen in the economy, but can not be said to be a certain indicator of economy.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Logistics and Supply Chain Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Logistics and Supply Chain Management - Essay Example Supply chain management is therefore the process of controlling the system of downstream and upstream organizations of material, information. These processes are the ones that assist in the manufacture of products and services for customers. Logistics is the word for all the processes involved in getting the right product, in the right way, quality and quantity, in the right time, for the right customer and at the right cost . Many scholars have tried to clarify the difference between logistics and supply chain management. From their works, we can analyze that supply chain management was derived from logistics. From the traditionalist point of view, supply chain management is a part of logistics. In the traditionalist view, the latter is the wider field. In a unionist view, logistics is a part of supply chain management since the latter is a wider concept. However, a more neutral ‘intersectionist’ approach has emerged which states that logistics and supply chain manageme nt are interrelated disciplines since both can be applied to the benefit of the company in terms of cost savings and enhancing the service . Any supply chain, be it straightforward or complex, begins with the customer and ends with the customer. The chain begins with the customer since the client must first make a commitment to buy the product being sold. By contacting the office, a sales order for the required quantity is prepared. If the product is to be manufactured, the sales order is taken to the production plan and it includes the requirements that need to be fulfilled. Planning is the next step. In planning, the company creates a production plan which will effectively manage the process and make sure it runs smoothly and effectively. The next step is purchasing. Here, the company receives the list of raw material needed to make the customer’s request and the purchasing department writes and sends out purchasing orders to their preferred suppliers to provide the necessa ry items within the set time. Inventory is the next step. Here, the company checks the quality and accuracy of the materials received from the suppliers. They also record the materials into their inventory management system and take them for storage. The supplier then sends an invoice for the items delivered. While following the production plan previously written, the raw materials are moved to the production floor. In the production floor, the company transforms these raw materials into the finished goods. The final items are tested to make sure they meet the standards of both the company and the client then stored in the warehouse. The final step is delivery of the items to the customer. Here, the shipping department ascertains the best way to ship the products to the customer. After delivery, the customer signs to accept delivery and the company sends an invoice for the delivered goods to the customer. Comparative Profiles of the Organizations This research paper gives a comparis on of two companies involved in the distribution and supply of grocery. One is Seal Honey and the other goes by the name Fresh Mart. These two companies are head to head competitors. They sell the same products and there is no much difference in their pricing. Both companies have been in the industry for

Friday, November 15, 2019

Development of Hard Water Sensor using Fluorescence

Development of Hard Water Sensor using Fluorescence Ph.D. Thesis: Dibyendu Dey Development of hard water sensor using fluorescence resonance energy transfer 7.1. Introduction â€Å"Hard water† has high mineral content in compare to â€Å"soft water†. Generally the hard water is not harmful to one’s health, but can cause serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness should be monitored to avoid breakdowns of the costly equipments that handle water. The hardness of water is determined by the concentration of multivalent cations in water. The most common cations found in hard water include Ca2+ and Mg2+. The presence of dissolved carbonate minerals (CaCO3 and MgCO3) provide a temporary hardness in water, which can be reduced either by boiling the water or by addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) [1, 2]. On the other hand the dissolved chloride minerals (CaCl2 and MgCl2) cause the permanent hardness of water that can not be removed easily, as it becomes more soluble as the temperature increases [3]. In that sense it is very important to identify the permanent hardness of water before use. The FRET phenomenon may be very effective tool for the designing of hard water sensors. Based on the FRET between two laser dyes here we demonstrated a hard water sensor. To the best of our knowledge this could be the first attempt, where FRET process has been used for the detection of the hardness of water. FRET between two molecules is an important physical phenomenon, where transfer of energy from an excited fluorophore to a suitable acceptor fluorophore occurred [4, 5]. This technique is very important for the understanding of some biological systems and has potential applications in optoelectronic and thin film devices [6–10]. Combining FRET with optical microscopy, it is possible to determine the approach between two molecules within nanometers. The main requirements for the FRET to occur are (i) sufficient overlap between the absorption band of acceptor fluorophore and the fluorescence band of donor fluorophore and (ii) both the donor and acceptor molecule must be in cl ose proximity of the order of 1–10 nm [4, 5]. The intervening of solvent or other macromolecules has little effect on the FRET efficiency. If the distance between the donor and acceptor changes then FRET efficiency also changes. In this chapter of the present thesis we tried to investigate the effect of Mg2+ or Ca2+ or both on the FRET efficiency between two fluorophores, Acf and RhB in presence of nanoclay sheet laponite. Here we have chosen Mg2+ or Ca2+ because the presence of these two cations mainly determines the extent of hardness of the water. Our investigation showed that FRET efficiency decreases with increasing salt concentration. It has also been demonstrated that with proper calibration, FRET between Acf and RhB can be used to sense the hardness of water. 7.2. Experimental 7.2.1. Solution preparation Both the dyes Acf and RhB were used in our studies are cationic in nature. The clay mineral used in the present work was Laponite. Dye solutions were prepared in Milli-Q water. For spectroscopic measurement the solution concentration was optimized at 10−6M. In order to check the effect of hard water components (Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions) on spectral charecteristics, MgCl2 and CaCl2 were added to the dye solution. The clay dispersion was prepared using Millipore water and stirred for 24 h with a magnetic stirrer followed by 30 min ultrasonication before use. The concentration of clay was kept fixed at 2 ppm throughout the experiment. To check the effect of clay on the spectral characteristics the dye solutions (Acf and RhB) were prepared in the clay suspensions (2 ppm). In order to check the effect of salt on spectral characteristics in presence of clay, first of all the salts were added in the clay dispersion at different concentration. Then the dyes were added in the salt mixed clay dispersions. In all cases the clay concentration was 2 ppm and the dye concentration was 10−6M. 7. 3. Results and discussion 7.3.1. Sensing of Hard Water by FRET FRET between Acf and RhB has already been studied and the results are shown in details in chapter 5 of this thesis. Here in this chapter we have used this same FRET pair for the sensing of water hardness. Our main purpose is to detect CaCl2 and MgCl2 or their mixture as a permanent hard water component in aqueous solution by using the FRET process between Acf and RhB. Fluorescence spectra of aqueous solution of Acf-RhB mixture in presence of MgCl2, CaCl2 and their mixture (CaCl2+MgCl2) have been studied (figure 7.1). For all the cases, the concentration of CaCl2/MgCl2/their mixture was kept at 0.06 mg/ml, which is the initializing concentration of hard water known as moderately hard water. Fig. 7.1. Fluorescence spectra of Acf+RhB (1:1 volume ratio) in water solution (1), with MgCl2 (2), CaCl2 (3), and CaCl2+MgCl2 (4), pure Acf (5), pure RhB (6). Dye concentration was 10-6M and salt concentration was 0.06 mg/ml. It was observed that the transfer of energy from Acf to RhB decreased in presence of salt (shown in table 7.1). The FRET efficiencies are calculated by using the Fà ¶rster theory. The introduction of cationic Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in the solution may cause an increase in the electrostatic repulsion between cationic Acf and RhB molecules which can result in a large intermolecular separation. Accordingly, the FRET efficiency decreases. Samples E% Acf+RhB 11.37 Acf+RhB+ CaCl2 1.7 Acf+RhB+ MgCl2 5.2 Acf+RhB+ MgCl2 +CaCl2 4.38 Acf+RhB+clay 78.17 Acf+RhB+ CaCl2 with clay 37.78 Acf+RhB+ MgCl2 with clay 51.59 Acf+RhB+ MgCl2 +CaCl2 with clay 48.18 Table 7.1 Values of energy transfer efficiency (E %) for Acf and RhB mixture (1:1 volume ratio) in different conditions. The salt concentration was 0.06 mg/ml (moderately hard water). Fig. 7.2. Fluorescence spectra of Acf+RhB (1:1 volume ratio) in clay suspension (1), with MgCl2 (2), CaCl2 (3), and CaCl2+MgCl2 (4) pure Acf with clay (5), pure RhB with clay (6). Dye concentration was 10-6M and clay concentration was 2 ppm and salt concentration was 0.06 mg/ml. In the present study our aim is to design a sensor which can sense the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ or both by observing the change in FRET efficiency. Accordingly it is very important to have large FRET efficiency between Acf and RhB as well as noticeable change in FRET efficiency between Acf and RhB due to the introduction of hard water components (Ca2+ or Mg2+), so that we can use it as a hard water sensor with minimum error level. Accordingly in order to enhance the FRET efficiency, we have incorporated nano clay laponite in Acf-RhB mixture (figure 7.2). It has been observed that the FRET efficiency increases in presence of laponite particle. The reason of increase in FRET efficiecy in presence of clay has been explained in details in chapter 5. It was also observed that the transfer of energy from Acf to RhB decreases quite remarkably due to the introduction of CaCl2/MgCl2/their mixture for the concentration of 0.06 mg/ml in presence of clay. It was observed that the transfer of ene rgy is much smaller due to the presence of CaCl2 in compare to MgCl2. (Table 7.1 summarize the calculated efficiencies). Fig. 7.3. Schematic representation of FRET between Acf and RhB in presence of clay and salt. The decrease in FRET between Acf and RhB in presence of hard water components, must involve the reaction of the cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) present in hard water with the clay minerals through cation exchange reaction. In general, this bonding energy is of the order: Ca > Mg > K > H > Na. Thus the probability of adsorption of Ca2+ in clay suspension is more than Mg2+. The tendency of Ca2+ ion to interact with the negatively charged clay layers is more compared to Mg2+ ion of same concentration of both clay suspension and salt solution. Accordingly, most of the negative charges in the clay surfaces are neutralized by Ca2+ ion compared to Mg2+ ion and there exists very few unoccupied negative charges on the clay surface for the cationic dye molecules to be adsorbed. As a result the separation between the cationic dye molecules increases more in CaCl2 solution rather than MgCl2 leading to a less FRET in presence of CaCl2 compare to MgCl2 (shown schemetically in figure 7.3). 7.3.2. Variation of salt concentration In order to check the extent of hardness on the FRET efficiency, we have measured the fluorescence spectra of Acf+RhB mixture with different salt (MgCl2, CaCl2, and MgCl2+CaCl2 mixture) concentration in presence of clay laponite and the FRET efficiency have been calculated. It has been observed that the FRET efficiency decreases with increasing salt concentration of either MgCl2 or CaCl2, or their mixture (figure 7.4). This result suggests that it is possible to sense the hardness of water by observing the change in FRET efficiency with salt concentration. Fig. 7.4. The fluorescence spectra of Acf–RhB mixture in presence of clay with varying amount of salt (MgCl2+CaCl2 mixture) concentration viz. 0.05 mg/ml (1), 0.06 mg/ml (2) and 0.12 mg/ml (3). Inset shows the variation of FRET efficiency as a function of salt concentration of either MgCl2 or CaCl2, or CaCl2+ MgCl2 mixture from 0.03 mg/ml to 0.20 mg/ml. Salt concentration (mg/ml) FRET efficiency (E%) in presence of MgCl2 CaCl2 MgCl2+CaCl2 mixture 0.03 78.52 64.27 73.73 0.05 71.55 55.32 68.34 0.06 51.59 37.78 48.18 0.08 32.47 18.75 21.57 0.12 19.67 10.54 13.48 0.20 11.34 5.67 07.38 Table 7.2 Values of energy transfer efficiency (E %) for Acf-RhB mixture (1:1 volume ratio) at different salt (MgCl2, CaCl2, MgCl2+CaCl2 mixture) concentration in presence of clay. MgCl2 and CaCl2 mixture were prepared by adding 1:1 volume ratio of individual salts of same concentration. 7.3.3. Design of sensor In the process of hard water sensing first of all clay (laponite) dispersion will be prepared using the sample water followed by addition of dyes (Acf and RhB). By observing the FRET efficiency between Acf and RhB it would be possible to sense the hardness of the test water. Fig. 7.5. FRET efficiency of Acf-RhB mixture for the different concentration of CaCl2 + MgCl2 in presence of clay (values of FRET efficiencies were calculated from spectra of Fig. 7.4). From figure 7.5 it has been observed that the FRET efficiency for 0.06 mg/ml and 0.12 mg/ml concentration are 48.2% and 13.5% respectively. If the FRET efficiency is observed to be higher than 48.2%, then the water will be recognized as soft water whereas, if the efficiency lies in between 13.5% and 48.2% then the water will be recognized as moderately hard. On the other hand if the observed FRET efficiency is less than 13.5% then the water will be recognized as very hard. Therefore with proper calibration it is possible to design a hard water sensor which can sense hard water very easily. 7.4. Conclusion In order to demonstrate hard water sensor based on FRET, we have investigated the FRET between Acf and RhB in presence of salts CaCl2 or MgCl2 or both. It was observed that the presence of hard water components Ca2+ or Mg2+ or both affected the FRET efficiency to a large extent. In presence of CaCl2 or MgCl2 the FRET efficiency is decreased to 37.78% and 51.59%, respectively. With suitable calibration of these results it is possible to design a hard water sensor that can sense the water hardness within the range 0.03–0.2 mg/ml. Here the incorporation of clay platelate laponite enhances the sensing efficiency.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Political Philosophy and Machiavelli Essay

Niccolo Machiavelli’s essay, â€Å"The Qualities of the Prince† is a very interesting piece of literary work that has an atypical way of depicting the qualities of a successful leader. Machiavelli developed a way of thinking that changes the human perspective on what a quality leader is made of. He took what people were afraid to say aloud and voiced it in a way that almost unraveled the truth about what people in power were really like. Machiavelli comes to a junction is his essay when he writes; â€Å"being disarmed makes you despised†. When Machiavelli says this he means to say that in order for someone to appear powerful they must be armed and physically capable of warfare. In his essay he very clearly portrays that in order for someone to have control and ultimate power, they must have the means to start a war. Machiavelli makes the point in his essay that people are ultimately naà ¯ve and easily manipulated and that in order to be an exceptional leader, you must be unafraid to do what’s necessary to survive the political wilderness. This is not to say that you should go about your power abusing it because you have the power to, but rather use it in situations when it is necessary. He also says that it is more important to be feared then loved but not too feared because then people may get the idea to over throw you. I found this essay quite radical but very interesting. I think that although I wish it weren’t true, that most politicians today have this sort of mindset. I believe this piece of literary work to be the most contradicting of Machiavelli’s time.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Noodles industry in India with market share Essay

‘Growing Up’ The Instant noodles market in India is finally coming of age after over 25 years The instant noodles category in India was, in a sense, created by Nestlà © with the introduction of their Maggi brand in mid-1980s. The concept of ‘2-minute noodles’, positioned as a quick snack option for children, found acceptance with both the children and their mothers as well. Having built and nurtured the category’s evolution, the brand name â€Å"Maggi† almost became a synonym for the instant noodles category itself. During the 1990s and 2000s, Maggi faced little competition. Despite the entry of players like Top Ramen (Indo Nissin Foods) in 1991, Ching’s Secret (Capital Foods) in 1996, and Wai Wai (CG Foods) in 2005, Maggi continued to retain its dominant position. However, in the past few years, we have seen consumer goods giants ITC (Sunfeast Yippee!), Glaxo-Smithkline (Horlicks Foodles), and Hindustan Unilever Limited (Knorr Soupy Noodles) foray into this lucrative market with differentiated product offerings. These brands have brought a competitive intensity to the space. This market now also comprises private labels like Feasters (AV Birla Retail), Tasty Treat (Future Group), and Smart Choice (Spencers). Even though ‘Maggi’ continues to dominate the market with a share in excess of 75%, the entry of multiple brands and the increasing aggression of existing brands has taken away several percentage points from Maggi’s market share. The category’s strong growth, and ever widening consumer acceptance, makes it a lucrative option for various players. The instant noodles market is estimated at ~INR 2200 crore (USD 402.7 million) and is projected to grow at a healthy annual rate of ~15% over the next few years. There are several reasons behind the growth this category has realized, in India, some of which are mentioned below. ï‚ · Changing consumer lifestyles – Over the years, the change in consumers’ preferences and eating habits, and their wider global exposure, along with an increasingly younger population, the growth in the middle class, with more nuclear families, and the growing time-poverty (as a result of the rise in the number of working couples) has given a boost to the convenience food segment. As a result, the instant noodles market has charted a high growth trajectory thanks to its availability, affordability, anytime-anywhere consumption and convenience, being a quick meal requiring minimal cooking. Instant noodles have also emerged from being a snack food or an occasional, alternate eating option to a mainstream food item of choice featuring regularly in consumers’ grocery baskets. ï‚ · Growing customer base – The emergence of instant noodles has added a new dimension to consumers’ meals; noodles are being consumed not just by kids (who are the core target audience) as an evening snack or a ‘tiffin’ meal but by consumers across all age groups, as an eating option beyond the ‘mundane’ ones. While it continues to be a home snack, it is also increasingly being consumed at workplace, colleges, etc. Geographically too, the appetite for instant noodles is growing with players now eyeing the semi-urban and rural markets. The category’s penetration is low in India (~20-25%), thus presenting a lucrative opportunity for growth. ï‚ · More options and variants: Players present in the space are innovating and adding value to establish a unique brand proposition in the consumers’ mind. Some of the major developments in this direction include: o Introduction of new flavors: To kindle the consumer’s interest in the category and also cater to the diverse and changing tastes of the consumer, instant noodles brands constantly enhance their product offerings by adding new flavors. In addition to the classic Masala and Chicken flavors, a wide range of flavors including Indo-Chinese, Chinese, tomato, etc. have been launched. 1 o Growing focus on health: Despite their fondness for instant noodles, consumers in India hold the notion that noodles are unhealthy, being made from ‘maida’ which is seen as not being as healthy as ‘atta’. To address this concern, brands are proactively introducing ‘healthy’ offerings as part of their product portfolio. Maggi and Top Ramen have their ‘atta’ noodles, while Horlicks Foodles was launched entirely on the health platform, with the noodles made from wheat or multiple grains and including a vitamin-supplying â€Å"Health Maker†. Additionally, HUL has also positioned its Knorr Soupy Noodles as a healthy, fun-filled snack. o More packaging variants: Brands have introduced packs in different sizes, right from single noodle packs of 50-75 gm. to value eight noodle packs. Further, to increase the category’s penetration, brands like Maggi and Wai Wai have extended product offerings in an even smaller pack size, priced at INR 5. o Category extension from pouch to cup noodles: A vital development in the market was the extension from pouch noodles to cup noodles that are ready-to-eat, on adding hot water, unlike pouch noodles that require to be cooked. The driving factor here is that convenience (the need for an on-the-go meal) is gaining in prominence in consumers’ lives owing to the rise in a younger working population and a migrant population, the increasing population of double income households with more working women, etc. Top Ramen offers different flavors in cup noodles, mini cup noodles, and mug noodles. Maggi and Wai Wai have extended to cup noodles as well. Modern formats, which provide high product visibility and good product displays, are acting as a good marketing platform for brands to promote their product offerings via consumer schemes like price discounts, bundled offers, sampling for new launches, etc. However, about 80-90% of instant noodles sales takes place through traditional formats (mom and pop stores), which is not surprising since noodles are a regular grocery item. Thus players need to invest significantly in distribution and establish a widespread retail reach and tap into a larger consumer base. Therefore, distribution remains an important enabler for this category. Another key challenge for players is to maintain price points and margins given the fluctuations in input costs. Usually, they opt to reduce pack sizes, while keeping prices constant, to counter the challenge. In its journey of 28 years, the instant noodles market has undergone several changes, viz. the entry of several new players, innovations in products and value-addition in packaging, the emergence of modern formats, a shift in consumption towards convenience foods, etc. Going forward, this market will continue to register a doubledigit growth and will witness higher competitive intensity. The strength of the distribution networks and media campaigns of the new entrants has the potential to be a game-changer and may eventually cause Maggi to face some serious competition, and perhaps even make this pioneering brand fight to defend its dominance. This category is finally coming of age and promises to be an interesting space to watch in the next few years. Authored By: Pragya Singh – Associate Director, Retail Ashima Anand- Senior Consultant, Retail

Friday, November 8, 2019

Virgin Atlantic Airlines The WritePass Journal

Virgin Atlantic Airlines Executive Summary Virgin Atlantic Airlines , September 2014). Retrieved on 06/09/14 from Investopedia. (2014, September 2014). Retrieved on 06//09/14 from European Monetary Policy. (Septmber 2014). Retrieved on 06/09/14 from Chamberlin, G. (September 2009). Economic Review Sep 2009. Economic and Labour Market Review Gillespie, A. (June 2009). Foundations of Economics. New York; Oxford University Press

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Summary #18 Example

Summary #18 Example Summary #18 – Essay Example AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR Aggressive Behavior Aggressive behavior is learnt and shared from the father to the child since the boys learndirectly by observing the behavioral patterns of the father. In the ordinary and conventional sense, children do not only learn from the things that their parents advice or tell them to do but also emulate from their actual behavior (Rosenthal & Zimmerman, 2014). The fact that the father shouts, screams and is even physically violent with the boys put them in a bad headspace emotionally. When the father pushes the boys to the ground, their emotional stability and acumen is shaken and they are left psychologically scared. Thus, as a result, it would be ordinary for the children or the boys to transfer the same type of treatment and violence to the other younger children or people. This stems from the fact that the children are modelled or mentally prepared to reasons that violence either through shouting, screaming or physically manhandling their peers is the best way of resolving issues and disagreements. Intuitively, the elder children who are manhandled and shouted to transform and do the same to the younger child by lifting him up by his ears while they are screaming at him. The younger child also does not take the shouting in a soft manner and instead also raises his voice to the other older children. It is my humble opinion and respectful li9ne of thought that the younger child also emulates the stance demonstrated by the father relative to violence. Thus, it is fair to mention that the violent and abusive behavior of the father directly affects the children to act in the same manner to all their other counterparts.ReferenceRosenthal, T. L., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2014). Social learning and cognition. Academic Press.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Compensation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Compensation - Essay Example Each company in every industry across all countries has accountants who similarly have the same qualifications and skills with all the other accountants and thus, accounting is one example of a benchmark job. Once an individual is able to afford all the basic needs then the attainment of these needs seizes to become a motivating factor. However, the individual can become motivated again if he or she focuses on achieving other higher needs such as safety or social needs. If a school administrator sets a target for teacher to achieve for example to ensure that more than 50% of the students achieve grade B and above, if the teacher achieves this target he or she will receive an extra pay that is known as merit pay. According to the writings by (Milkovich, 450-700), broad banding is described as a practice whereby the human resource categories different jobs in ‘bands’ based on a broader classification such responsibilities and skill requirements. Broad banding eliminates small grouping of jobs, which usually result in many jobs groups. (Milkovich, 450-700), noted that among the key advantages of broad banding is that it reduces rivalry between employees in an organisation since it eliminates the emphasis on hierarchy or status within the organisation. Secondly, broad banding is advantageous to an organization because it makes the payment structure to be more flexible and responsive to the vary needs of the evolving environment. (Milkovich, 450-700) stated that it is not possible for certain organisations or countries to adopt the practice of broad banding, this is especially if the organisation or countries gives much regards to status or titles because of social factors and either the country or organization prefers the use of well defined procedures and policies. However, the practice can easily be adopted in organizations that are much flexible and prefer cross or lateral

Friday, November 1, 2019

An introduction to accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

An introduction to accounting - Essay Example Accounting may not be popular but it is a must for any organisation,be it in the manufacturing or service sector, whatever its size,whichever country it is based in and whether or not its aim is to maximise profits.Without accounting resources cannot be managed effectivelyIt is irrefutable that any business organization requires the use of accounting. In fact, the use of accounting dates back from the time a business organization is formed. A company cannot function efficiently without the use of a system which list down the financial transactions that it undertakes (Atrill and McClaney 2001). In the simplest sense, accounting can be defined as the system which provides information about the financial situation of an organization.Since accounting is all about recording financial transactions, it is then a necessity for any organization which deals with money (Atrill and McClaney 2001). And looking at the global business situation right now, no business entity is ever existent without financial resources. Accounting provides a systematic and comprehensive way of recording a company's financial transactions. For one, the accounting equation serves as the basis of the company's financial statements recognizing the principle of double-entry bookkeeping in accounting. The accounting equation is as follows: assets less liabilities = shareholders' equity. It can also be expanded as: assets less liabilities = shareholders' equity (revenue less expenses)(Keown et al 2005). ... Accounting aids a business organization to gather three types of information namely operating, financial, and managerial (Atrill and McClaney 2002). All companies are required to use accounting for operating purposes or for daily activities in order to record and determine the amount of salary owed to workers, track sales, and level of inventory. Secondly, financial information is also needed in order to attract shareholders and creditors. The company often needs to prove to these providers of financial aid that it is worthy of receiving resources. Thus, a company should record transactions and report them to these interested entities. Lastly, accounting is used for decision making. Companies are interested to know how much inventory should be produced in a given month, whether to manufacture in-house or source from a supplier, whether to acquire a new equipment or not. It should be noted that the purposes and information provided by accounting is used by any business organization whether from the goods or service sector. As long as there is money involved, transactions are irrefutably recorded. The financial resources are tracked through accounting. For one, the most common goal of a company which is to make money can only be evaluated if financial transactions are constantly monitored and recorded systematically. A business can only know whether it makes money or not when it employs a system which tracks its revenue and its expenses. However, it should also be stressed that accounting is also required even for not-for-profit business organizations. Non-government organizations like Red Cross and Youth for Christ employ accounting to record their expenses and budget

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Intercultural Communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Intercultural Communication - Essay Example Many organizations hire individuals from different countries to serve in different capacities within their ranks. One challenge that employees face in such organizations is understanding people with backgrounds that are different from theirs (Wang & Li, 2007). In such an environment, employees need to develop skills that enable them to become successful and effective intercultural communicators as they engage their colleagues in communication and as they interact at the workplace. Communication is one of the major components of effectiveness at a work place, the reason being that without effective communication, there are high chances of distortion in the message. This tenet affects the outcome of an instruction or direction and increases chances of poor performance. However, cultural differences have the potential to create considerable difficulty in intercultural communication since culture has a strong effect on beliefs, values, nonverbal behavior, language, worldviews and relationships with other people (Chitakornkijsil, 2010). For the management, intercultural communication facilitates the exchange of meanings between them and other managers from other countries. Managers who have subordinates from different countries working under them face the challenge of encoding and decoding messages in the correct way to ensure that the message is interpreted correctly. Every international manager qualifies as a communicator in the sense that they do or say conveys essential information to someone or a group of people within or outside the organization (Lauring, 2011). In a world where no country is self-sufficient in terms of resources, cultures and markets increasingly converge. For an organization to record considerable success in today’s business environment, it has to adopt cross-cultural teamwork and collaboration (Samovar, McDaniel &

Monday, October 28, 2019

Tess of the dUrbervilles Essay Example for Free

Tess of the dUrbervilles Essay In the novel Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Thomas Hardy makes extensive use of nature and setting to portray personal relationships and emotions, in particular that of Tess and Angel Clare. Using features from Pathetic Fallacy to extended metaphors, Hardy presents the two characters as being at one with nature and directly linked to the seasons. In Tess of the dUrbervilles, the characters and setting mirror each other. Tess moves between different settings through the stages of the novel, each mirroring her emotional and mental state. In chapter XV1, the beginning of phase the third, the pleasant vale echoes Tess’s newfound happiness, which resonates in the lush surroundings and bright May sunshine. By starting the phase with ‘on a thyme-scented, bird hatching morning in May’ Hardy is presenting an optimistic viewpoint, one of hope and a new beginning. Throughout the novel there is an extended metaphor of Tess being bird like, elegant and at home with nature and the imagery of ‘bird-hatching’ presents the inference that it is a new start for Tess, full of life and energy. This portrayal of ‘life’ is carried through this chapter with Hardy making reference to ‘the evangelist’; this is in fact John the Baptist whom sees the river of life in a vision, this significantly links to the new lease of life before Tess, a new start where there were ‘no invidious eyes upon her’. By introducing Angel almost as soon as Tess establishes her newfound freedom and hope, Hardy makes it clear from the outset that this relationship will be more significant than any other. This is a deliberate structural choice as Tess is at her happiest point, and the change could either make or break her character. Although their paths cross in ‘the maiden’ chapter 2, Tess and angel do not become fully acquainted until Chapter 19 where Angel plays his harp to Tess. This is a key scene in the novel as, it establishes the terms of Tess and Angel’s relationship. They idealise each other; he sees her as a simple ‘daughter of the soil’, she sees him as an ‘intelligence’. The references to Tess’s difficulty in describing her emotions, the spirit of the age and the ‘ache of modernism’ are suggestive of Hardy’s interest in modernity. But we also see how Tess is subject to and driven by nature’s rhymes. Tess is described animalistically, first as a bird-reminding us of chapter 9 and then as a cat; ‘she went stealthily as a cat’. The garden’s red stains, sticky profusion and clouds of pollen; echoing the clouds of dust in the barn at Chaseborough in Chapter 10, which are symbolic of abundant fertility, desire and insemination. In the chapter Tess becomes entranced by the music Angel plays on the harp, this is significant as it mirrors the cows and the effect the harp playing has on them, again signifying that Tess is animalistic and at one with nature. The description of the scene in which they meet is very plain, and naturalistic- there is a strong semantic field of nature with lexis such as ‘cuckoo-spittle’ (insect secretion) and ‘blights’. Although all seems at peace and neutral, there are some underlying warnings within the first transactional meeting of the pair. For instance the ‘madder stains’ which is a crimson like dye, significant because of the connotations of the warning colour red and the ‘red’ theme that seemingly follows Tess throughout the novel. Starting from her red hair bow at the town dance and continuing with the death of the horse ‘Prince’ and Tess’s blood stained body. These are omens predetermining the harsh future and the doomed relationship between Tess and Angel. Although the saying goes opposites attract, the opposites are shown to be the downfall of Tess and Alec, Hardy presents him as a well to do, respectable man; he is a man of the 1890s who rejects the precepts of Christianity, as we learn in chapter 18 where Clare rejects the key tenets of his Fathers Anglican faith. Tess on the other hand is portrayed as plain and naturalistic. In phase the fourth after falling in love with Tess, Angel retreats to his family to ask permission to marry Tess. It is with this we see that the two do not match, Tess is not suited to the cultural life Clare can offer. Angel’s life at Talbothays is in striking contrast to that of his family; the natural, rural life of the farm is opposed to the cultured life of the traditional vicarage. The time of day is significant, in chapter xxv when Angel is at his parents vicarage it is described as ‘dusk’ and ‘when evening drew on’, this is dissimilar to the ‘hot weather of July’ Talbothays and is a further indication that it is not suited to Tess. Nature is portrayed as a force throughout the novel, it seems to act as a challenge for the relationship and sometimes seems to be the physical motion blocking the relationship from flourishing even more. The personification of all things naturalistic effectively acts as omens and connections, Tess is often connected to the birds, the cows and flowers; but this is only when there is no male presence. When she is seemingly with a male or in an aspiring relationship, nature turns nasty. What starts as the ‘thyme scented’ morning- implying a positive future, grows ugly; the start of chapter 18, depicts a growing Angel Clare, much like a plant, ‘Angel Clare rises out of the past’ and this is the catalyst for natures decline in mood. The chapters that proceed Angels rising, all seem somewhat negative and dark, as if nature casts a shadow over Tess. Chapter 20 begins with ‘the season developed and matured’ and makes reference to nature being replaceable, ‘where only a year ago others had stood in their place’ – this is hardy referring to Tess’s past with Alec and giving a warning that Angel and Tess’s relationship is covering over the cracks and in fact Angel may be no different to Alec. Chapter 23 portrays nature as a force, it begins with ‘the hot weather of July crept upon them’ Personifying nature and giving it the ability to ‘creep’ makes the relationship seem unimportant and vulnerable against the world. The chapter has numerous omens of bad will to the couple, ‘it was Sunday morning; the milking was done’ with Sunday predominantly and traditionally being the day of rest, it is an ill omen to work on this day, and with the feature of pathetic fallacy, Hardy omits the force of nature against this sin- ‘steaming rains’ and ‘heavy thunderstorms’. In phase the fifth – the woman pays, the omens are made reality, Angel rejects Tess, even though at this point they are wed, he refuses to notice any relationship but will not divorce for traditional pride and societal embarrassment. In chapter 35 we see the consequences of Tess’s and Angel’s idealising love, repetition is used to intensify feeling , while the cottager’s observation makes Tess and Angel feel drawn out and secluded. The rest of the world seems indifferent to their plight, this is shown with the metaphorical ruined abbey portraying their dead relationship, the abbey symbolises the decline of conventional morality, but in its gothic description also adds to the feeling that Angel is haunted by the spectre of simple natural Tess, grotesquely transformed into a delinquent aristocrat. This a melodramatic, almost sarcastic tone to the chapter, Angel emits a tear and even simple everyday objects like the fire are transformed by Tess’s confession; ‘the fire looked impish-demoniacally funny’. The three phases analysed are key to understanding the characters of Angel and more importantly Tess. We see Tess at her happiest working with nature, living in the rural farm of Talbothays. This has been her destiny throughout the novel, she has been linked to the birds and the seasons mirror her emotional state. The introduction of Angel disrupts the natural balance and leaves Tess feeling out of place and not in synch with nature. Angels arrival see’s Tess try to become something she is not, she wants to fit in with a higher societal class and in doing so breaches class boundaries so she does not feel able to fit in any environment. Hardy cleverly uses Pathetic fallacy and extended metaphors throughout to signify changes in relationship, with rain and thunder being when Tess is at her least happy, when Angel rejects their marriage but refuses a divorce. All in all I conclude that nature acts as a great force that blocks a flourishing relationship between the two, it casts shadows over future prospects and makes like hard for Tess to fit in.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Brave New World :: essays papers

Brave New World Imagine living in a society where there is no such thing as mothers or fathers, where you look exactly like the 500 people standing next to you, where casual sex and drug use is not only allowed, but is encouraged. Well, the society in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, is just that. While the prophecies from the Brave New World society are quite different from those of today, they can be argued as both right and wrong, but , and the technology to make them happen may be just around the corner. The society of the Brave New World is quite different from ours, with their lack of spirituality proving that point. â€Å"The pleasure-seeking society pursues no spiritual experiences or joys, preferring carnal ones. The lack of religion that seeks a true transcendental understanding helps ensure that the masses of people, upper and lower classes, have no reason to rebel† . Another main difference, is the absence of mothers and fathers, and the technology that makes it possible. â€Å"Brave New World is a futuristic society designed by genetic engineering, and controlled by neural conditioning with mind-altering drugs and manipulative media. It predestines human embryos to certain levels of intelligence, and chemically does away with the concept of old age†. Today, the technology is simply not available to create hundreds of humans from the same egg. Yet another prophecy that differs greatly from those of today, is the use of soma and casual sex. In today’s soc iety both of these things are frowned upon greatly. However, in the brave new world, they are promoted. The prophecies promoted in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, are quite different from those promoted in today’s society. Even though the new society digresses greatly from today’s, were the ideas promoted really all that bad? It could be argued either way. One side may argue that there is nothing really wrong with continuously physically pleasuring yourself. After all, if â€Å"everybody belongs to everybody else†, there would be a lot less fighting. If technology did not allow for any of the consequences associated with drugs, then what would be so wrong about them? What if you did not have to go through life behaving yourself, because the concept of having to get into heaven simply did not exist. Would it not be nice to not have to deal with all the pain and grieving death brings, to be able to simply accept it and move on?

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Parallels between Scottsboro and Maycomb Essay

To Kill a Mockingbird, a classic novel written by Harper Lee, is focused on racism that takes place in Maycomb, Alabama during the 1930s, where African Americans were segregated by white men. Harper Lee said that the Scottsboro trial, which was a trial that started because of discrimination, inspired her on writing To Kill a Mockingbird. Despite the differences between the Scottsboro Boys and To Kill a Mockingbird, both of them had an impact on the racial implications and laws of the south. The Scottsboro Trials was a sad tragedy that took place in Alabama during the 1930s. While nine black youth, ages from 13 to 21, were on a train heading to Memphis, Tennessee to find a job, a fight between the nine black youths and a group of white men started. After the white men were kicked out of the train, they reported what had happened to a stationmaster, and the station master stopped the train at a town called Paint Rock. After the train stopped, a group of policed jumped on the train and arrested the nine black youths. When they are caught on the train, two white women, dressed in men’s clothes, were found hiding on the train. Then the two white women accused the nine black youths raping them without any evidence. Because raping in 1930s in the Deep South was a big crime, so many trials started. At the end, every one of the Scottsboro Boys were sentenced to death except for the youngest one, Roy Wright, who was 13 years old. The reason why the jurors did not sentence him to death is because of his age. Although he was not sentenced to death, he was still sentenced for spending his life time in jail (The Scottsboro Case (1931)) (Lanset). Maycomb, Alabama is the main setting that the book, To Kill a Mockingbird, took place. Maycomb and the Scottsboro Trials are similar because they both relate to the discrimination between African Americans and white men. It was Tom Robinson, who was accused of rape by a white woman, just as the Scottsboro Boys was, and he was sentenced guilty by all-white juries even though he did nothing wrong. Although he wasn’t sentenced to death, he was still killed by jail guards who shot seventeen bullets at him just because he tried to escape. To Kill a Mockingbird and the Scottsboro Boys are similar because Harper Lee based her story on the Scottsboro Trials. The first case took place during April 1931, and it was taken to the juries around three pm. For less than two hours, the juries announced the verdict, death penalty; after the crows outside heard it, they yelled of approval. Also, the juries also warned people who were in the courthouse that there must be no demonstration staged after the verdict, so the people in the courtroom just applauded, while people outside cheered wildly. The second trial that was held on April 8th, for eighteen-year-old Haywood Patterson. Then the jury announced a verdict of death penalty within three hours. The third case was tried with five boys; Olin Montgomery, who was seventeen and nearly blind, Andy Wright (18 years old), Eugene Williams (17 years old), Willie Robeson (17 years old), and Ozie Powell, who was 16 years old. During this trial, Willie RObeson was suffering from a bad venereal disease, so it was pretty much impossible to rape somebody with that disease. However, the case went to the jury at four pm, and next morning, the verdict was still a death penalty. During the trials, Governor Benjamin Miller even sent the Alabama National Guard to Scottsboro to prevent a death sentence, but at the end, eight of the Scottsboro Boys were still sentenced to death, except for the youngest one, Roy Wright. Although Roy Wright wasn’t sentenced to death, he was still sentenced to be in jail for his whole life (Linder) (Salter). All the trials of Scottsboro started pretty much because of discrimination. On June 22, 1933, Jude James Horton was convinced that Victoria Price was lying because all her stories were inconsistent; also, she had no witnesses and medical evidences for her claims too. Another person, Dr. Lynch, who asked to talk to Horton privately, said that the girls were lying too. As a result, Judge Horton took his verdict of death penalty back, and announced that there will be a new trial. Attorney General Knight also promised that there would be evidences for Victoria Price’s rape story; Orville Gilley, a white boy on the train agreed to testify for the prosecution. William Callahan, a judge whose age is about 75, was going to participate in Haywood Patterson’s next trial on November 1933. During the trial, Judge Callahan cut off all the questions about Victoria Price’s chastity, character, and reputation. Also, when Leibowtiz queried Price about her probability of having sex with someone other than a Scottsboro Boy, Judge Callahan stopped him. He did these because he wanted to debunk this event off the American’s newspaper. Similarly to the Scottsboro trials, Tom Robinson’s trial in To Kill a Mockingbird also started because of discrimination. Mayella wanted to protect her dad, so she accused Tom, an African American, of raping her. She accused a black guy because she knew that in a fight, white men always win (Linder). The Scottsboro Trials incident had impacted the community’s racial climate and the ideologies during the 1930s. Firstly, it had forced the country to look back to their racial practices although white men disliked black men. Secondly, the African Americans changed from republicans to democratic community. Thirdly, the Scottsboro Trials made black men realize how badly the white men were treating them. For example, racial practices and how they were looked upon by law. Lastly, it also changed the way the legal system of the United States is viewed. Because of the Scottsboro Boys, the African Americans learned to fight for their rights†¦ (Ross) (Scottsboro Boys Hist2081) The discrimination between African Americans and white men was the reason why the Scottsboro Trials and the trial in To Kill a Mocking happened. Although black men lost in their trials, they later realize their power, and started to fight for their rights. The Scottsboro Trial is an event that impacted the whole world, especially America, making them realize several things they had done wrong, and to never repeat it again.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

When to Consider a Single-Instance Erp Strategy

Reproduction of this publication in any form without prior written permission is forbidden. The Information contained herein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Garner disclaims all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. Although Garter's research may discuss legal issues related to the information technology business, Garner does not provide legal advice or services and its research should not be construed or used as such.Garner shall have no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the information contained herein or for Interpretations thereof. The opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice. WHAT you NEED TO KNOW Adopting a single-instance, single-vendor enterprise resource planning strategy can deliver benefits, but it does not make sense for every organization. It should only be undertaken If you have a good business case for the project and it matches most or all of Garter's single-instance success factors.If the challenges balance or outweigh the success factors, then you should address organizational issues before proceeding. If this Is not feasible, then consider Illimitableness consolidation or a tiered business application strategy. ANALYSIS Most large multinational organizations have a heterogeneous application portfolio hat has built up over time. The portfolio often is made more complex by tactical purchasing and merger and acquisition activity.Senior executives in such organizations are attracted to the idea of standardizing on applications from a single enterprise resource planning (ERP) vendor because of potential operational cost savings and reduced complexity of the IT landscape (see Note 1). Vendor consolidation is often a first step toward instance consolidation. ; A single instance of an application can run all operating companies on a common process template, a ingle release AT ten application Ana a giggle copy AT ten applications dataset, using a cons olidated technical infrastructure.A single-instance strategy can drive cost reductions in several areas, including integration, interfaces, training, support and hardware. In addition, potential benefits may be found in process improvements, better data consistency and improved visibility of information. However, adopting a single-instance, single-vendor ERP strategy is not a task to be undertaken lightly, because it can create disruption in enterprise operations and often involves replacing some systems that are favored by users.Even if the business case appears to support the deployment of a single-instance ERP solution, there still may be significant obstacles to overcome. Certain types of organizations will find it more difficult to realize the benefits of a single-instance ERP strategy because of their culture and infrastructure. See Table 1 to determine whether single-system ERP might work for your organization. Rank yourself against each of the categories. If you have mainly (or exclusively) success factors, then a single-instance ERP strategy is more likely to be successful. Table 1 .Single-Instance ERP Success Factors and Challenges Enterprise Profile Business Model Corporate Culture and Policy Definition Geographical Concentration Success Factors Single primary core business with similar business processes Centralized with strong corporate head office; policy dictated at corporate level and globally enforced Company aspires to operate as a single global company, and operations, sales and marketing are concentrated in a single geographical region Stable, unlikely to undergo dramatic growth or downsizing Challenges Diversified group with wide range of business processes Decentralized tit autonomous business units; policy decided at the business-unit level Company operates as a multinational company, and operations, sales and marketing are distributed globally Dynamic, growing rapidly or downsizing significantly Business Environment publication Date: 28 September 2005/AD Number: GO 30366 2005 Garner, Inc. And/or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved.Page 2 of 6 Merger, Acquisition and Divestiture Status Established ERP Systems Technology Environment Acquiring smaller entities that are easily absorbed into the corporate culture Highly likely to be acquired or merge with a company of a similar size (or larger); vesting encore businesses Diverse, with an even spread from potential single- system suppliers Architecture and technology are decided at the business-unit level Elemental mummer, wilt majority AT systems Trot likely single-system vendor Enterprise-level architecture with similar technologies Source: Garner (September 2005) Note that the scope of this analysis is limited to the processes automated through traditional ERP systems, such as financial, HRS, procurement, inventory management, production planning and order management. Single-instance strategies are typically noninsured first in the ERP domain because these processes are more internally focused and homogeneous, and have less impact on competitive differentiation. Suitability of a single-instance strategy in other domains, such as customer relationship management (CRM), product life cycle management (PLUM) and supply chain management (SCM), should be assessed following a similar process. However, with CRM, PLUM and SCM, organizations are even less likely to meet the criteria in Table 1 and will typically discover that a single-instance strategy doesn't align with the business strategy.By implication, even if a single-instance ERP environment is successfully created, most organizations will have to support multiple instances of peripheral systems. Enterprise Profile Elements ; Business Model: Organizations in service industries such as software or financial services will find adoption of single- system ERP easier than those with a diversified business model, because the ERP adoption will primarily affect their back-office administrative functions. Process changes in these areas will have less impact on revenue-creating activities and, therefore, are lower risk than changes in operational areas such as manufacturing and logistics operations.Corporate Culture and Policy Definition: Organizations that operate in a decentralized manner with highly autonomous business units may find these operations unwilling to release control of local systems to a central IT function. If there is a culture of local decision making, then business-unit executives may not be willing to accept a decision that is mandated from the corporate head office. Geographical Concentration: Companies that aspire to operate as global companies (operate on a common set of business processes across the globe) are well- positioned to achieve a global single instance, because they align the IT strategy with he business strategy.Companies operating as multinationals (have a unique set of business processes for local markets, particularly sales and marketing, and SC M), will have difficulties running their international businesses on a common system. Also, organizations that are physically concentrated in a single geographical region will find it easier to achieve a single instance, because support and operations of the system take place in a narrow range of adjacent time zones. The need to support a single instance around the clock creates issues with available support windows for upgrades and maintenance, and possibly network-related performance and availability issues.Business Environment: A single-instance ERP strategy may not be appropriate for organizations that face significant change. Implementation of a single-instance system may be thrown into disarray if there is a significant change of direction in the business Page 3 of 6 (for example, a manufacturer decides to sell its manufacturing operations and focus instead on design and logistics services). ; Merger, Acquisition and Divestiture Status: This aspect of the general business situ ation can have a major impact on a single- instance strategy. Organizations that are likely to acquire or merge with entities of a similar size may find their investment in a significance strategy compromised if they merge with organizations that use different ERP systems.Established ERP Systems: If the ERP system from a potential single-instance vendor is already used in the majority of the organization, then there may be little resistance to a wider deployment. Many organizations have initially implemented multiple instances of a single ERP system are now considering instance consolidation. However, if there is no nominate provider, then a single-instance strategy will face resistance, because some users are likely to fight to retain their â€Å"much loved† locally implemented systems from â€Å"their† vendors. Technology Environment: Similar challenges may arise if there is no common technology environment and enterprise architecture in place.A single- instance stra tegy requires the adoption of a specific technology environment (operating system, database, middleware and other IT infrastructure), and organizations that already have an enterprise architecture in place will find it easier to implement a single-instance approach. When the technology environment is defined at the business-unit level, local IT functions may resist moving away from their architecture to that which is required to support the single-instance strategy. Determining Who Drives the Initiative Often, instance consolidation initiatives are driven by the IT organization on the basis of simplification of the application landscape, and the IT technical and support infrastructure. Table 1 shows that five out of the seven success factors are within the business domain and entirely outside the control of the IT organization.This underscores the point that instance installation projects should primarily be business-driven projects, with a business case solidly based on business be nefits. Without understanding, sponsorship and commitment at the senior business management level, the project is doomed to fail. The IT organization plays a critical role in educating the business units, and planning and executing the project; however, it does not own the project. What to Do If the generalness outlawed ten success Factors organizations considering giggle-alliance ERP that find the challenges outweigh the success factors have other options: 1 . Consider a limited ERP vendor and infrastructure consolidation strategy, without moving to a single-instance consolidation.This strategy will enable organizations to achieve some efficiency improvements in the IT organization by consolidating some of the operating and support infrastructure of the ERP systems. However, the strategy will not realize the full benefits of a single-instance system. This strategy may be suitable for organizations that are diversified and decentralized in nature, operate in a highly dynamic market environment and consider IT costs to be a significant factor. A common approach is to adopt vendor consolidation with some level of instance consolidation (for example, regional or divisional instances). 2. Adopt a tiered business application strategy (see â€Å"How to Approach Tiered Business Applications†), where specific applications are adopted to address the needs of decentralized business units.Page 4 of 6 3. Address the organizational issues that are creating the challenges prior to implementing the single-instance strategy. There are two main actions that need to be taken to address these organizational issues: ; Involve business-unit executives in alluding and reviewing the business case to create buy-in. Develop a feasibility study that shows how business-unit requirements can be accommodated in a single- instance implementation, and build an instance strategy to support this. Consider getting business-unit executives to develop a business case to Justify why their business unit should not be included in a single-instance solution.Get the executive management team to understand and accept how investing in a single-instance strategy can affect your merger and acquisition strategy. During their due diligence, organizations adopting a single-instance strategy must take account of how ERP systems are used by potential acquisition targets. Similarly, a single-instance strategy may limit downsizing options, because it will be difficult to divest parts of the business on an ongoing basis if they do not have their own business applications. If significant divestiture is likely, then a single-instance ERP project should be deferred until the business environment stabilizes. Key Issues How can more value be gained from an enterprise resource planning investment?Note 1 Definition of Single Instance A single instance of an ERP system is when a single installation of the application is linked to a single database. This significantly sleepless support Ana m alfeasance Decease tenure Is only one set AT application infrastructure to be maintained. This does not necessarily mean that all business units have to use the same business rules, because most ERP systems enable different entities within a single instance to have a degree of uniqueness. However, there will be constraints on the capability of the business units to define their own business rules (compared to separate instances for each business unit).